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    TIRUKKURAL
    English Translation and Commentary

    by Rev. Dr. G. U. Pope, Rev W. H. Drew,
    Rev. John Lazarus and Mr F. W. Ellis

    PART I. VIRTUE

    1.1 Introduction

    1.1.1 The Praise of God

    1
    A, as its first of letters, every speech maintains;
    The Primal Deity is first through all the worlds domains.
    As the letter A is the first of all letters, so the eternal God is first in the world.

    2.
    No fruit have men of all their studied lore,
    Save they the Purely Wise Ones feet adore.
    What Profit have those derived from learning, who worship not the good feet of Him who is possessed of pure knowledge ?

    3.
    His feet, Who oer the full-blown flower hath past, who gain
    In bliss long time shall dwell above this earthly plain.
    They who are united to the glorious feet of Him who passes swiftly over the flower of the mind, shall flourish long above all worlds.

    4.
    His foot, Whom want affects not, irks not grief, who gain
    Shall not, through every time, of any woes complain.
    To those who meditate the feet of Him who is void of desire or aversion, evil shall never come.

    5.
    The men, who on the Kings true praised delight to dwell,
    Affects not them the fruit of deeds done ill or well.
    The two-fold deeds that spring from darkness shall not adhere to those who delight in the true praise of God.

    6
    Long live they blest, who ve stood in path from falsehood freed;
    His, Who quenched lusts that from the sense-gates five proceed.
    Those shall long proposer who abide in the faultless way of Him who has destroyed the five desires of the senses.

    7.
    Unless His foot, to Whom none can compare, men gain,
    Tis hard for mind to find relief from anxious pain.
    Anxiety of mind cannot be removed, except from those who are united to the feet of Him who is incomparable.

    8.
    Unless His feet the Sea of Good, the Fair and Bountiful, men gain,
    Tis hard the further bank of beings changeful sea to attain.
    None can swim the sea of vice, but those who are united to the feet of that gracious Being who is a sea of virtue.

    9.
    Before His foot, the Eight-fold Excellence, with unbent head,
    Who stands, like palsied sense, is to all living functions dead.
    The head that worships not the feet of Him who is possessed of eight attributes,
    is as useless as a sense without the power of sensation.

    10.
    They swim the sea of births, the Monarchs foot who gain;
    None others reach the shore of beings mighty main.
    None can swim the great sea of births but those who are united to the feet of God.

    1.1.2. The Excellence of Rain

    11.
    The world its course maintains through life that rain unfailing gives;
    Thus rain is known the true ambrosial food of all that lives.
    By the continuance of rain the world is preserved in existence; it is therefore worthy to be called ambrosia.

    12.
    The rain makes pleasant food for eaters rise;
    As food itself, thirst-quenching draught supplies.
    Rain produces good food, and is itself food.

    13.
    If clouds, that promised rain, deceive, and in the sky remain,
    Famine, sore torment, stalks oer earths vast ocean-girdled plain.
    If the cloud, withholding rain, deceive (our hopes) hunger will long distress the sea-girt spacious world.

    14.
    If clouds their wealth of waters fail on earth to pour,
    The ploughers plough with oxens sturdy team no more.
    If the abundance of wealth imparting rain diminish, the labour of the plough must cease.

    15.
    Tis rain works all: it ruin spreads, then timely aid supplies;
    As, in the happy days before, it bids the ruined rise.
    Rain by its absence ruins men; and by its existence restores them to fortune.

    16.
    If from the clouds no drops of rain are shed.
    Tis rare to see green herb lift up its head.
    If no drop falls from the clouds, not even the green blade of grass will be seen.

    17.
    If clouds restrain their gifts and grant no rain,
    The treasures fail in oceans wide domain.
    Even the wealth of the wide sea will be diminished, if the cloud that has drawn (its waters) up gives them not back again (in rain).

    18.
    If heaven grow dry, with feast and offering never more,
    Will men on earth the heavenly ones adore.
    If the heaven dry up, neither yearly festivals, nor daily worship will be offered in this world, to the celestials.

    19.
    If heaven its watery treasures ceases to dispense,
    Through the wide world cease gifts, and deeds of penitence.
    If rain fall not, penance and alms-deeds will not dwell within this spacious world.

    20
    When water fails, functions of nature cease, you say;
    Thus when rain fails, no men can walk in dutys ordered way.
    If it be said that the duties of life cannot be discharged by any person without water,
    so without rain there cannot be the flowing of water.

    1.1.3. The Greatness of Ascetics

    21.
    The settled rule of every code requires, as highest good,
    Their greatness who, renouncing all, true to their rule have stood.
    The end and aim of all treatise is to extol beyond all other excellence, the greatness of those who,
    while abiding in the rule of conduct peculiar to their state, have abandoned all desire.

    22
    As counting those that from the earth have passed away,
    Tis vain attempt the might of holy men to say.
    To describe the measure of the greatness of those who have forsaken the two-fold desires,
    is like counting the dead.

    23.
    Their greatness earth transcends, who, way of both worlds weighed,
    In this world take their stand, in virtues robe arrayed.
    The greatness of those who have discovered the properties of both states of being, and renounced the world,
    shines forth on earth (beyond all others).

    24.
    He, who with firmness, curb the five restrains,
    Is seed for soil of yonder happy plains.
    He who guides his five senses by the hook of wisdom will be a seed in the world of heaven.

    25.
    Their might who have destroyed the five, shall soothly tell
    Indra, the lord of those in heavens wide realms that dwell.
    Indra, the king of the inhabitants of the spacious heaven, is himself, a sufficient proof of the strength of
    him who has subdued his five senses.

    26.
    Things hard in the doing will great men do;
    Things hard in the doing the mean eschew.
    The great will do those things which is difficult to be done; but the mean cannot do them.

    27.
    Taste, light, touch, sound, and smell: who knows the way
    Of all the five,- the world submissive owns his sway.
    The world is within the knowledge of him who knows the properties of taste, sight, touch, hearing and smell.

    28.
    The might of men whose word is never vain,
    The secret word shall to the earth proclaim.
    The hidden words of the men whose words are full of effect, will shew their greatness to the world.

    29.
    The wrath tis hard een for an instant to endure,
    Of those who virtues hill have scaled, and stand secure.
    The anger of those who have ascended the mountain of goodness, though it continue but for a moment, cannot be resisted.

    30.
    Towards all that breathe, with seemly graciousness adorned they live;
    And thus to virtues sons the name of Anthanar men give.
    The virtuous are truly called Anthanar; because in their conduct towards all creatures they are clothed in kindness.

    1.1.4. Assertion of the Strength of Virtue

    31.
    It yields distinction, yields prosperity; what gain
    Greater than virtue can a living man obtain?
    Virtue will confer heaven and wealth; what greater source of happiness can man possess ?

    32.
    No greater gain than virtue aught can cause;
    No greater loss than life oblivious of her laws.
    There can be no greater source of good than (the practice of) virtue; there can be no
    greater source of evil than the forgetfulness of it.

    33.
    To finish virtues work with ceaseless effort strive,
    What way thou mayst, whereer thou seest the work may thrive.
    As much as possible, in every way, incessantly practise virtue.

    34.
    Spotless be thou in mind! This only merits virtues name;
    All else, mere pomp of idle sound, no real worth can claim.
    Let him who does virtuous deeds be of spotless mind; to that extent is virtue; all else is vain show.

    35.
    Tis virtue when, his footsteps sliding not through envy, wrath,
    Lust, evil speech-these four, man onwards moves in ordered path.
    That conduct is virtue which is free from these four things, viz, malice, desire, anger and bitter speech.

    36.
    Do deeds of virtue now. Say not, To-morrow well be wise;
    Thus, when thou diest, shalt thou find a help that never dies.
    Defer not virtue to another day; receive her now; and at the dying hour she will be your undying friend.

    37.
    Needs not in words to dwell on virtues fruits: compare
    The man in litter borne with them that toiling bear!
    The fruit of virtue need not be described in books; it may be inferred from seeing the bearer of a palanquin and the rider therein.

    38.
    If no day passing idly, good to do each day you toil,
    A stone it will be to block the way of future days of moil.
    If one allows no day to pass without some good being done, his conduct will be a stone to block up the passage to other births.

    39.
    What from virtue floweth, yieldeth dear delight;
    All else extern, is void of glorys light.
    Only that pleasure which flows from domestic virtue is pleasure; all else is not pleasure, and it is without praise.

    40.
    Virtue sums the things that should be done;
    Vice sums the things that man should shun.
    That is virtue which each ought to do, and that is vice which each should shun.

    1.2 Domestic Virtue
    1.2.1. Domestic Life

    41.
    The men of household virtue, firm in way of good, sustain
    The other orders three that rule professed maintain.
    He will be called a (true) householder, who is a firm support to the virtuous of the three orders in their good path.

    42.
    To anchorites, to indigent, to those whove passed away,
    The man for household virtue famed is needful held and stay.
    He will be said to flourish in domestic virtue who aids the forsaken, the poor, and the dead.

    43.
    The manes, God, guests kindred, self, in due degree,
    These five to cherish well is chiefest charity.
    The chief (duty of the householder) is to preserve the five-fold rule (of conduct) towards the manes,
    the Gods, his guests, his relations and himself.

    44.
    Who shares his meal with other, while all guilt he shuns,
    His virtuous line unbroken though the ages runs.
    His descendants shall never fail who, living in the domestic state, fears vice (in the acquisition of
    property) and shares his food (with others).

    45.
    If love and virtue in the household reign,
    This is of life the perfect grace and gain.
    If the married life possess love and virtue, these will be both its duty and reward.

    46.
    If man in active household life a virtuous soul retain,
    What fruit from other modes of virtue can he gain?
    What will he who lives virtuously in the domestic state gain by going into the other, (ascetic) state ?

    47.
    In natures way who spends his calm domestic days,
    Mid all that strive for virtues crown hath foremost place.
    Among all those who labour (for future happiness) he is greatest who lives well in the household state.

    48.
    Others it sets upon their way, itself from virtue neer declines;
    Than stern ascetics pains such life domestic brighter shines.
    The householder who, not swerving from virtue, helps the ascetic in his way, endures more than those who endure penance.

    49.
    The life domestic rightly bears true virtues name;
    That other too, if blameless found, due praise may claim.
    The marriage state is truly called virtue. The other state is also good, if others do not reproach it.

    50.
    Who shares domestic life, by household virtues graced,
    Shall, mid the Gods, in heaven who dwell, be placed.
    He who on earth has lived in the conjugal state as he should live, will be placed among the Gods who dwell in heaven.

    1.2.2 The Goodness of the Help to Domestic Life

    51.
    As doth the house beseem, she shows her wifely dignity;
    As doth her husbands wealth befit, she spends: help - meet is she.
    She who has the excellence of home virtues, and can expend within the means of her husband, is a help in the domestic state.

    52.
    If household excellence be wanting in the wife,
    Howeer with splendour lived, all worthless is the life.
    If the wife be devoid of domestic excellence, whatever (other) greatness be possessed, the conjugal state, is nothing.

    53.
    There is no lack within the house, where wife in worth excels,
    There is no luck within the house, where wife dishonoured dwells.
    If his wife be eminent (in virtue), what does (that man) not possess ? If she be without excellence, what does (he) possess ?

    54.
    If woman might of chastity retain,
    What choicer treasure doth the world contain?
    What is more excellent than a wife, if she possess the stability of chastity ?

    55.
    No God adoring, low she bends before her lord;
    Then rising, serves: the rain falls instant at her word!
    If she, who does not worship God, but who rising worships her husband, say, let it rain, it will rain.

    56.
    Who guards herself, for husbands comfort cares, her households fame,
    In perfect wise with sleepless soul preserves, -give her a womans name.
    She is a wife who unweariedly guards herself, takes care of her husband, and preserves an unsullied fame.

    57.
    Of what avail is wat ch and ward?
    Honours womans safest guard.
    What avails the guard of a prison ? The chief guard of a woman is her chastity.

    58.
    If wife be wholly true to him who gained her as his bride,
    Great glory gains she in the world where gods bliss abide.
    If women shew reverence to their husbands, they will obtain great excellence in the world where the gods flourish.

    59.
    Who have not spouses that in virtues praise delight,
    They lion-like can never walk in scorners sight.
    The man whose wife seeks not the praise (of chastity) cannot walk with lion-like stately step, before those who revile them.

    60.
    The houses blessing, men pronounce the house-wife excellent;
    The gain of blessed children is its goodly ornament.
    The excellence of a wife is the good of her husband; and good children are the jewels of that goodness.

    1.2.3. The Obtaining of Sons

    61.
    Of all that men acquire, we know not any greater gain,
    Than that which by the birth of learned children men obtain.
    Among all the benefits that may be acquired, we know no greater benefit than the acquisition of intelligent children.

    62.
    Who children gain, that none reproach, of virtuous worth,
    No evils touch them, through the sevn-fold maze of birth.
    The evils of the seven births shall not touch those who abtain children of a good disposition, free from vice.

    63.
    Mans children are his fortune, say the wise;
    From each ones deeds his varied fortunes rise.
    Men will call their sons their wealth, because it flows to them through the deeds which they (sons) perform on their behalf.

    64.
    Than Gods ambrosia sweeter far the food before men laid,
    In which the little hands of children of their own have playd.
    The rice in which the little hand of their children has dabbled will be far sweeter (to the parent) than ambrosia.

    65.
    To patent sweet the touch of children dear;
    Their voice is sweetest music to his ear.
    The touch of children gives pleasure to the body, and the hearing of their words, pleasure to the ear.

    66.
    The pipe is sweet, the lute is sweet, by themt will be averred,
    Who music of their infants lisping lips have never heard.
    The pipe is sweet, the lute is sweet, say those who have not heard the prattle of their own children.

    67.
    Sire greatest boon on son confers, who makes him meet,
    In councils of the wise to fill the highest seat.
    The benefit which a father should confer on his son is to give him precedence in the assembly of the learned.

    68.
    Their childrens wisdom greater than their own confessed,
    Through the wide world is sweet to every human breast.
    That their children should possess knowledge is more pleasing to all men of this great earth than to themselves.

    69
    When mother hears him named fulfilld of wisdoms lore,
    Far greater joy she feels, than when her son she bore.
    The mother who hears her son called a wise man will rejoice more than she did at his birth.

    70.
    To sire, what best requital can by grateful child be done?
    To make men say, What merit gained the father such a son?
    (So to act) that it may be said by what great penance did his father beget him, is the benefit
    which a son should render to his father.

    1.2.4. The Possession of Love

    71.
    And is there bar that can even love restrain?
    The tiny tear shall make the lovers secret plain.
    Is there any fastening that can shut in love ? Tears of the affectionate will publish the love that is within.

    72.
    The loveless to themselves belong alone;
    The loving men are others to the very bone.
    Those who are destitute of love appropriate all they have to themselves; but those who possess
    love cons ider even their bones to belong to others.

    73.
    Of precious soul with bodys flesh and bone,
    The union yields one fruit, the life of love alone.
    They say that the union of soul and body in man is the fruit of the union of love and virtue (in a former birth).

    74.
    From love fond yearning springs for union sweet of minds;
    And that the bond of rare excelling friendship binds.
    Love begets desire: and that (desire) begets the immeasureable excellence of friendship.

    75
    Sweetness on earth and rarest bliss above,
    These are the fruits of tranquil life of love.
    They say that the felicity which those who, after enjoying the pleasure (of the conjugal state) i
    n this world, obtain in heaven is the result of their domestic state imbued with love.

    76.
    The unwise deem love virtue only can sustain,
    It also helps the man who evil would restrain.
    The ignorant say that love is an ally to virtue only, but it is also a help to get out of vice.

    77,
    As suns fierce ray dries up the boneless things,
    So loveless beings virtues power to nothing brings.
    Virtue will burn up the soul which is without love, even as the sun burns up the creature which is without bone, i.e. worms.

    78.
    The loveless soul, the very joys of life may know,
    When flowers, in barren soil, on sapless trees, shall blow.
    The domestic state of that man whose mind is without love is like the flourishing of a withered tree upon the parched desert.

    79.
    Though every outward part complete, the bodys fitly framed;
    What good, when soul within, of love devoid, lies halt and maimed?
    Of what avail are all the external members (of the body) to those who are destitute of love, the internal member.

    80.
    Bodies of loveless men are bony framework clad with skin;
    Then is the body seat of life, when love resides within.
    That body alone which is inspired with love contains a living soul: if void of it, (the body) is bone overlaid with skin.

    1.2.5 Cherishing Guests

    81.
    All household cares and course of daily life have this in view.
    Guests to receive with courtesy, and kindly acts to do.
    The whole design of living in the domestic state and laying up (property) is (to be able) to exercise the
    benevolence of hospitality.

    82.
    Though food of immortality should crown the board,
    Feasting alone, the guests without unfed, is thing abhorred.
    It is not fit that one should wish his guests to be outside (his house) even though he were eating the food of immortality.

    83.
    Each day he tends the coming guest with kindly care;
    Painless, unfailing plenty shall his household share.
    The domestic life of the man that daily entertains the guests who come to him shall not be laid waste by poverty.

    84
    With smiling face he entertains each virtuous guest,
    Fortune with gladsome mind shall in his dwelling rest.
    Lakshmi with joyous mind shall dwell in the house of that man who, with cheerful countenance, entertains the good as guests.

    85.
    Who first regales his guest, and then himself supplies,
    Oer all his fields, unsown, shall plenteous harvests rise.
    Is it necessary to sow the field of the man who, having feasted his guests, eats what may remain ?

    86
    The guest arrived he tends, the coming guest expects to see;
    To those in heavenly homes that dwell a welcome guest is he.
    He who, having entertained the guests that have come, looks out for others who may yet come,
    will be a welcome guest to the inhabitants of heaven.

    87.
    To reckon up the fruit of kindly deeds were all in vain;
    Their worth is as the worth of guests you entertain.
    The advantages of benevolence cannot be measured; the measure (of the virtue) of the guests (entertained) is the only measure.
    < br> 88.
    With pain they guard their stores, yet All forlorn are we, theyll cry,
    Who cherish not their guests, nor kindly help supply.
    Those who have taken no part in the benevolence of hospitality shall (at length lament) saying,
    we have laboured and laid up wealth and are now without support.

    89.
    To turn from guests is penury, though worldly goods abound;
    Tis senseless folly, only with the senseless found.
    That stupidity which excercises no hospitality is poverty in the midst of wealth. It is the property of the stupid.

    90.
    The flower of Anicha withers away, If you do but its fragrance inhale;
    If the face of the host cold welcome convey, The guests heart within him will fail.
    As the Anicham flower fades in smelling, so fades the guest when the face is turned away.

    1.2.6 The Utterance of Pleasant Words

    91.
    Pleasant words are words with all pervading love that burn;
    Words from his guileless mouth who can the very truth discern.
    Sweet words are those which imbued with love and free from deceit flow from the mouth of the virtuous.

    92.
    A pleasant word with beaming smiles preferred,
    Even to gifts with liberal heart conferred.
    Sweet speech, with a cheerful countenance is better than a gift made with a joyous mind.

    93.
    With brightly beaming smile, and kindly light of loving eye,
    And heart sincere, to utter pleasant words is charity.
    Sweet speech, flowing from the heart (uttered) with a cheerful countenance and a sweet look, is true virtue.

    94.
    The men of pleasant speech that gladness breathe around,
    Through indigence shall never sorrows prey be found.
    Sorrow-increasing poverty shall not come upon those who use towards all, pleasure-increasing sweetness of speech.

    95.
    Humility with pleasant speech to man on earth,
    Is choice adornment; all besides is nothing worth.
    Humility and sweetness of speech are the ornaments of man; all others are not (ornaments).

    96.
    Who seeks out good, words from his lips of sweetness flow;
    In him the power of vice declines, and virtues grow.
    If a man, while seeking to speak usefully, speaks also sweetly, his sins will diminish and his virtue increase.

    97.
    The words of sterling sense, to rule of right that strict adhere,
    To virtuous action prompting, blessings yield in every sphere.
    That speech which, while imparting benefits ceases not to please, will yield righteousness (for this world) and merit (for the next world).

    98.
    Sweet kindly words, from meanness free, delight of heart,
    In world to come and in this world impart.
    Sweet speech, free from harm to others, will give pleasure both in this world and in the next.

    99.
    Who sees the pleasure kindly speech affords,
    Why makes he use of harsh, repellant words?
    Why does he use harsh words, who sees the pleasure which sweet speech yields ?

    100.
    When pleasant words are easy, bitter words to use,
    Is, leaving sweet ripe fruit, the sour unripe to choose.
    To say disagreeable things when agreeable are at hand is like eating unripe fruit when there is ripe.

    1.2.7 The Knowledge of Benefits Conferred: Gratitude

    101.
    Assistance given by those who neer received our aid,
    Is debt by gift of heaven and earth but poorly paid.
    (The gift of) heaven and earth is not an equivalent for a benefit which is conferred where none had been received.

    102.
    A timely benefit, -though thing of little worth,
    The gift itself, -in excellence transcends the earth.
    A favour conferred in the time of need, though it be small (in itself), is (in value) much larger than the world.

    103.
    Kindness shown by those who weigh not what the return may be:
    When you ponder right its merit, T is vaster than the sea.
    If we weigh the excellence of a benefit which is conferred without weighing the return, it is larger than the sea.

    104.
    Each benefit to those of actions fruit who rightly deem,
    Though small as millet-seed, as palm-tree vast will seem.
    Though the benefit conferred be as small as a millet seed, those who know its advantage will consider it as large as a palmyra fruit.

    105.
    The kindly aids extent is of its worth no measure true;
    Its worth is as the worth of him to whom the act you do.
    The benefit itself is not the measure of the benefit; the worth of those who have received it is its measure.

    106.
    Kindness of men of stainless soul remember evermore!
    Forsake thou never friends who were thy stay in sorrow sore!
    Forsake not the friendship of those who have been your staff in adversity. Forget not be benevolence of the blameless.

    107.
    Through all seven worlds, in seven-fold birth, Remains in memry of the wise.
    Friendship of those who wiped on earth, The tears of sorrow from their eyes.
    (The wise) will remember throughout their seven-fold births the love of those who have wiped away their affliction.

    108.
    Tis never good to let the thought of good things done thee pass away;
    Of things not good, tis good to rid thy memory that very day.
    It is not good to forget a benefit; it is good to forget an injury even in the very moment (in which it is inflicted).

    109.
    Effaced straightway is deadliest injury,
    By thought of one kind act in days gone by.
    Though one inflict an injury great as murder, it will perish before the thought of one benefit (formerly) conferred.

    110.
    Who every good have killed, may yet destruction flee;
    Who benefit has killed, that man shall neer scape free!
    He who has killed every virtue may yet escape; there is no escape for him who has killed a benefit.

    1.2.8 Impartiality

    111.
    If justice, failing not, its quality maintain,
    Giving to each his due, -tis mans one highest gain.
    That equity which consists in acting with equal regard to each of (the three) divisions of men
    [enemies, strangers and friends] is a pre-eminent virtue.

    112.
    The just mans wealth unwasting shall endure,
    And to his race a lasting joy ensure.
    The wealth of the man of rectitude will not perish, but will bring happiness also to his posterity.

    113.
    Though only good it seem to give, yet gain
    By wrong acquired, not een one day retain!
    Forsake in the very moment (of acquisition) that gain which, though it should bring advantage, is without equity.

    114.
    Who just or unjust lived shall soon appear:
    By each ones offspring shall the truth be clear.
    The worthy and unworthy may be known by the existence or otherwise of good offsprings.

    115.
    The gain and loss in life are not mere accident;
    Just mind inflexible is sages ornament.
    Loss and gain come not without cause; it is the ornament of the wise to preserve evenness of mind (under both).

    116.
    If, right deserting, heart to evil turn,
    Let man impending ruins sign discern!
    Let him whose mind departing from equity commits sin well consider thus within himself, I shall perish.

    117.
    The man who justly lives, tenacious of the right,
    In low estate is never low to wise mans sight.
    The great will not regard as poverty the low estate of that man who dwells in the virtue of equity.

    118.
    To stand, like balance-rod that level hangs and rightly weighs,
    With calm unbiassed equity of soul, is sages praise.
    To incline to neither side, but to rest impartial as the even-fixed scale is the ornament of the wise.

    119.
    Inflexibility in word is righteousness,
    If men inflexibility of soul possess.
    F reedom from obliquity of speech is rectitude, if there be (corresponding) freedom from bias of mind.

    120.
    As thriving trader is the trader known,
    Who guards anothers interests as his own.
    The true merchandize of merchants is to guard and do by the things of others as they do by their own.

    1.2.9 The Possession of Self-restraint

    121.
    Control of self does man conduct to bliss th immortals share;
    Indulgence leads to deepest night, and leaves him there.
    Self-control will place (a man) among the Gods; the want of it will drive (him) into the thickest darkness (of hell).

    122.
    Guard thou as wealth the power of self-control;
    Than this no greater gain to living soul!
    Let self-control be guarded as a treasure; there is no greater source of good for man than that.

    123.
    If versed in wisdoms lore by virtues law you self restrain.
    Your self-repression known will yield you glorys gain.
    Knowing that self-control is knowledge, if a man should control himself, in the prescribed course,
    such self-control will bring him distinction among the wise.

    124.
    In his station, all unswerving, if man self subdue,
    Greater he than mountain proudly rising to the view.
    More lofty than a mountain will be the greatness of that man who without swerving from his domestic state, controls himself.

    125.
    To all humility is goodly grace; but chief to them
    With fortune blessed, -tis fortunes diadem.
    Humility is good in all; but especially in the rich it is (the excellence of) higher riches.

    126.
    Like tortoise, who the five restrains
    In one, through seven world bliss obtains.
    Should one throughout a single birth, like a tortoise keep in his five senses, the fruit of it will prove a
    safe-guard to him throughout the seven-fold births.

    127.
    Whateer they fail to guard, oer lips men guard should keep;
    If not, through fault of tongue, they bitter tears shall weep.
    Whatever besides you leave unguarded, guard your tongue; otherwise errors of speech and the consequent misery will ensue.

    128.
    Though some small gain of good it seem to bring,
    The evil word is parent still of evil thing.
    If a mans speech be productive of a single evil, all the good by him will be turned into evil.

    129.
    In flesh by fire inflamed, nature may thoroughly heal the sore;
    In soul by tongue inflamed, the ulcer healeth never more.
    The wound which has been burnt in by fire may heal, but a wound burnt in by the tongue will never heal.

    130.
    Who learns restraint, and guards his soul from wrath,
    Virtue, a timely aid, attends his path.
    Virtue, seeking for an opportunity, will come into the path of that man who, possessed of learning
    and self-control, guards himself against anger.

    1.2.10 The Possession of Decorum

    131.
    Decorum gives especial excellence; with greater care
    Decorum should men guard than life, which all men share.
    Propriety of conduct leads to eminence, it should therefore be preserved more carefully than life.

    132.
    Searching, duly watching, learning, decorum still we find;
    Mans only aid; toiling, guard thou this with watchful mind.
    Let propriety of conduct be laboriously preserved and guarded; though one know and practise and
    excel in many virtues, that will be an eminent aid.

    133.
    Decorums true nobility on earth;
    Indecorums issue is ignoble birth.
    Propriety of conduct is true greatness of birth, and impropriety will sink into a mean birth.

    134.
    Though he forget, the Brahman may regain his Vedic lore;
    Failing in decorum due, birthrights gone for evermore.
    A Brahman though he should forget the Vedas may recover it by reading; but, if he fail in propriety of
    conduct even his high bi rth will be destroyed.

    135.
    The envious soul in life no rich increase of blessing gains,
    So man of due decorum void no dignity obtains.
    Just as the envious man will be without wealth, so will the man of destitute of propriety of conduct be without greatness.

    136.
    The strong of soul no jot abate of strict decorums laws,
    Knowing that due decorums breach foulest disgrace will cause.
    Those firm in mind will not slacken in their observance of the proprieties of life, knowing, as they do,
    the misery that flows from the transgression from them.

    137.
    Tis source of dignity when true decorum is preserved;
    Who break decorums rules endure een censures undeserved.
    From propriety of conduct men obtain greatness; from impropriety comes insufferable disgrace.

    138.
    Decorum true observed a seed of good will be;
    Decorums breach will sorrow yield eternally.
    Propriety of conduct is the seed of virtue; impropriety will ever cause sorrow.

    139.
    It cannot be that they who strict decorums law fulfil,
    Een in forgetful mood, should utter words of ill.
    Those who study propriety of conduct will not speak evil, even forgetfully.

    140.
    Who know not with the world in harmony to dwell,
    May many things have learned, but nothing well.
    Those who know not how to act agreeably to the world, though they have learnt many things, are still ignorant.

    1.2.11 Not coveting anothers Wife

    141
    Who laws of virtue and possessions rights have known,
    Indulge no foolish love of her by right anothers own.
    The folly of desiring her who is the property of another will not be found in those who know (the attributes of)
    virtue and (the rights of) property.

    142
    No fools, of all that stand from virtues pale shut out,
    Like those who longing lurk their neighbours gate without.
    Among all those who stand on the outside of virtue, there are no greater fools than those who stand
    outside their neighbours door.

    143
    Theyre numbered with the dead, een while they live, -how otherwise?
    With wife of sure confiding friend who evil things devise.
    Certainly they are no better than dead men who desire evil towards the wife of those who undoubtingly confide in them.

    144
    How great soeer they be, what gain have they of life,
    Who, not a whit reflecting, seek a neighbours wife.
    However great one may be, what does it avail if, without at all considering his guilt, he goes unto the wife of another ?

    145
    Mere triflel saying thus, invades the home, so he ensures.
    A gain of guilt that deathless aye endures.
    He who thinks lightly of going into the wife of another acquires guilt that will abide with him imperishably and for ever.

    146
    Who home ivades, from him pass nevermore,
    Hatred and sin, fear, foul disgrace; these four.
    Hatred, sin, fear, disgrace; these four will never leave him who goes in to his neighbours wife.

    147
    Who sees the wife, anothers own, with no desiring eye
    In sure domestic bliss he dwelleth ever virtuously.
    He who desires not the womanhood of her who should walk according to the will of another will be praised as a virtuous house-holder.

    148
    Manly excellence, that looks not on anothers wife,
    Is not virtue merely, tis full propriety of life.
    That noble manliness which looks not at the wife of another is the virtue and dignity of the great.

    149
    Who re good indeed, on earth begirt by oceans gruesome tide?
    The men who touch not her that is anothers bride.
    Is it asked, who are those who shall obtain good in this world surrounded by the terror-producing sea ?
    Those who touch not the shoulder of her who belongs to another.

    150
    Though virtues bounds he pass, and evil dee ds hath wrought;
    At least, tis good if neighbours wife he covet not.
    Though a man perform no virtuous deeds and commit (every) vice, it will be well if he desire not the
    womanhood of her who is within the limit (of the house) of another.

    1.2.12. The Possession of Patience, Forbearance

    151
    As earth bears up the men who delve into her breast,
    To bear with scornful men of virtues is the best.
    To bear with those who revile us, just as the earth bears up those who dig it, is the first of virtues.

    152
    Forgiving trespasses is good always;
    Forgetting them hath even higher praise;
    Bear with reproach even when you can retaliate; but to forget it will be still better than that.

    153
    The sorest poverty is bidding guest unfed depart;
    The mightiest might to bear with men of foolish heart.
    To neglect hospitality is poverty of poverty. To bear with the ignorant is might of might.

    154
    Seekst thou honour never tarnished to retain;
    So must thou patience, guarding evermore, maintain.
    If you desire that greatness should never leave, you preserve in your conduct the exercise of patience.

    155
    Who wreak their wrath as worthless are despised;
    Who patiently forbear as gold are prized.
    (The wise) will not at all esteem the resentful. They will esteem the patient just as the gold which they lay up with care.

    156
    Who wreak their wrath have pleasure for a day;
    Who bear have praise till earth shall pass away.
    The pleasure of the resentful continues for a day. The praise of the patient will continue until (the final destruction of) the world.

    157
    Though others work thee ill, thus shalt thou blessing reap;
    Grieve for their sin, thyself from vicious action keep!
    Though others inflict injuries on you, yet compassionating the evil (that will come upon them) it will be
    well not to do them anything contrary to virtue.

    158
    With overweening pride when men with injuries assail,
    By thine own righteous dealing shalt thou mightily prevail.
    Let a man by patience overcome those who through pride commit excesses.

    159
    They who transgressors evil words endure
    With patience, are as stern ascetics pure.
    Those who bear with the uncourteous speech of the insolent are as pure as the ascetics.

    160
    Though great we deem the men that fast and suffer pain,
    Who others bitter words endure, the foremost place obtain.
    Those who endure abstinence from food are great, next to those who endure the uncourteous speech of others.

    1.2.13 Not Envying

    161
    As strict decorums laws, that all men bind,
    Let each regard unenvying grace of mind.
    Let a man esteem that disposition which is free from envy in the same manner as propriety of conduct.

    162
    If man can learn to envy none on earth,
    Tis richest gift, -beyond compare its worth.
    Amongst all attainable excellences there is none equal to that of being free from envy towords others.

    163
    Nor wealth nor virtue does that man desire tis plain,
    Whom others wealth delights not, feeling envious pain.
    Of him who instead of rejoicing in the wealth of others, envies it, it will be said he neither desires virtue not wealth.

    164
    The wise through envy break not virtues laws,
    Knowing ill-deeds of foul disgrace the cause.
    (The wise) knowing the misery that comes from transgression will not through envy commit unrighteous deeds.

    165
    Envy they have within! Enough to seat their fate!
    Though foemen fail, envy can ruin consummate.
    To those who cherish envy that is enough. Though free from enemies that (envy) will bring destruction.

    166
    Who scans good gifts to others given with envious eye,
    His kin, with none to clothe or f eed them, surely die.
    He who is envious at a gift (made to another) will with his relations utterly perish destitute of food and rainment.

    167
    From envious man good fortunes goddess turns away,
    Grudging him good, and points him out misfortunes prey.
    Lakshmi envying (the prosperity) of the envious man will depart and introduce him to her sister.

    168
    Envy, embodied ill, incomparable bane,
    Good fortune slays, and soul consigns to fiery pain.
    Envy will destroy (a mans) wealth (in his world) and drive him into the pit of fire (in the world to come.)

    169
    To men of envious heart, when comes increase of joy,
    Or loss to blameless men, the why will thoughtful hearts employ.
    The wealth of a man of envious mind and the poverty of the righteous will be pondered.

    170
    No envious men to large and full felicity attain;
    No men from envy free have failed a sure increase to gain.
    Never have the envious become great; never have those who are free from envy been without greatness.

    1.2.14 Not Coveting

    171
    With soul unjust to covet others well-earned store,
    Brings ruin to the home, to evil opes the door.
    If a man departing from equity covet the property (of others), at that very time will his family be destroyed and guilt be incurred.

    172
    Through lust of gain, no deeds that retribution bring,
    Do they, who shrink with shame from every unjust thing.
    Those who blush at the want of equity will not commit disgraceful acts through desire of the profit that may be gained.

    173
    No deeds of ill, misled by base desire,
    Do they, whose souls to other joys aspire.
    Those who desire the higher pleasures (of heaven) will not act unjustly through desire of the trifling joy. (in this life.)

    174
    Men who have conquered sense, with sight from sordid vision freed,
    Desire not others goods, een in the hour of sorest need.
    The wise who have conquered their senses and are free from crime, will not covet (the things of others),
    with the thought we are destitute.

    175
    What gain, though lore refined of amplest reach he learn,
    His acts towards all mankind if covetous desire to folly turn?
    What is the advantage of extensive and accurate knowledge if a man through covetousness act senselessly towards all ?

    176
    Though, grace desiring, he in virtues way stand strong,
    Hes lost who wealth desires, and ponders deeds of wrong.
    If he, who through desire of the virtue of kindness abides in the domestic state i.e., the path in which it may
    be obtained, covet (the property of others) and think of evil methods (to obtain it), he will perish.

    177
    Seek not increase by greed of gain acquired;
    That fruit matured yields never good desired.
    Desire not the gain of covetousness. In the enjoyment of its fruits there is no glory.

    178
    What saves prosperity from swift decline?
    Absence of lust to make anothers cherished riches thine!
    If it is weighed, what is the indestructibility of wealth, it is freedom from covetousness.

    179
    Good fortune draws anigh in helpful time of need,
    To him who, schooled in virtue, guards his soul from greed.
    Lakshmi, knowing the manner (in which she may approach) will immediately come to those wise men who,
    knowing that it is virtue, covet not the property of others.

    180
    From thoughtless lust of others goods springs fatal ill,
    Greatness of soul that covets not shall triumph still.
    To covet (the wealth of another) regardless of consequences will bring destruction.
    That greatness (of mind) which covets not will give victory.

    1.2.15 Not Backbiting

    181
    Though virtuous words his lips speak not, and all his deeds are ill.
    If neighbour he defame not, theres good wit hin him still.
    Though one do not even speak of virtue and live in sin, it will be well if it be said of him he does not backbite.

    182
    Than he who virtue scorns, and evil deeds performs, more vile,
    Is he that slanders friend, then meets him with false smile.
    To smile deceitfully (in anothers presence) after having reviled him to his destruction (behind his back)
    is a greater evil than the commission of (every other) sin and the destruction of (every) virtue.

    183
    Tis greater gain of virtuous good for man to die,
    Than live to slander absent friend, and falsely praise when nigh.
    Death rather than life will confer upon the deceitful backbiter the profit which (the treatises on) virtue point out.

    184
    In presence though unkindly words you speak, say not
    In absence words whose ill result exceeds your thought.
    Though you speak without kindness before anothers face speak not in his absence words which regard not
    the evil subsequently resulting from it.

    185
    The slanderous meanness that an absent friend defames,
    This man in words owns virtue, not in heart, proclaims.
    The emptiness of that mans mind who (merely) praises virtue will be seen from the meanness of reviling
    another behind his back.

    186
    Who on his neighbours sins delights to dwell,
    The story of his sins, culled out with care, the world will tell.
    The character of the faults of that man who publishes abroad the faults of others will be sought out and published.

    187
    With friendly art who know not pleasant words to say,
    Speak words that sever hearts, and drive choice friends away.
    Those who know not to live in friendship with amusing conversation will by back-biting estrange even their relatives.

    188
    Whose nature bids them faults of closest friends proclaim
    What mercy will they show to other mens good name?
    What will those not do to strangers whose nature leads them to publish abroad the faults of their intimate friends ?

    189
    Tis charity, I ween, that makes the earth sustain their load.
    Who, neighbours absence watching, tales or slander tell abroad.
    The world through charity supports the weight of those who reproach others observing their absence.

    190
    If each his own, as neighbours faults would scan,
    Could any evil hap to living man?
    If they observed their own faults as they observe the faults of others, would any evil happen to men ?

    1.2.16 The Not Speaking Profitless Words

    191
    Words without sense, while chafe the wise,
    Who babbles, him will all despise.
    He who to the disgust of many speaks useless things will be despised by all.

    192
    Words without sense, where many wise men hear, to pour
    Than deeds to friends ungracious done offendeth more.
    To speak useless things in the presence of many is a greater evil than to do unkind things towards friends.

    193
    Diffusive speech of useless words proclaims
    A man who never righteous wisdom gains.
    That conversation in which a man utters forth useless things will say of him he is without virtue.

    194
    Unmeaning, worthless words, said to the multitude,
    To none delight afford, and sever men from good.
    The words devoid of profit or pleasure which a man speaks will, being inconsistent with virtue, remove him from goodness.

    195
    Gone are both fame and boasted excellence,
    When men of worth speak of words devoid of sense.
    If the good speak vain words their eminence and excellence will leave them.

    196
    Who makes display of idle words inanity,
    Call him not man, -chaff of humanity!
    Call not him a man who parades forth his empty words. Call him the chaff of men.

    197
    Let those who list speak things that no delight afford,
    Tis good for men of worth to speak no idle word.
    Let the wise if they will, speak things without excellence; it will be well for them not to speak useless things.

    198
    The wise who weigh the worth of every utterance,
    Speak none but words of deep significance.
    The wise who seek after rare pleasures will not speak words that have not much weight in them.

    199
    The men of vision pure, from wildering folly free,
    Not een in thoughtless hour, speak words of vanity.
    Those wise men who are without faults and are freed from ignorance will not even forgetfully speak things that profit not.

    200
    If speak you will, speak words that fruit afford,
    If speak you will, speak never fruitless word.
    Speak what is useful, and speak not useless words.

    1.2.17 Dread of Evil Deeds

    201
    With sinful act men cease to feel the dread of ill within,
    The excellent will dread the wanton pride of cherished sin.
    Those who have experience of evil deeds will not fear, but the excellent will fear the pride of sin.

    202
    Since evils new from evils ever grow,
    Evil than fire works out more dreaded woe.
    Because evil produces evil, therefore should evil be feared more than fire.

    203
    Even to those that hate make no return of ill;
    So shalt thou wisdoms highest law, tis said, fulfil.
    To do no evil to enemies will be called the chief of all virtues.

    204
    Though good thy soul forget, plot not thy neighbours fall,
    Thy plans shall virtues Power by ruin to thyself forestall.
    Even though forgetfulness meditate not the ruin of another. Virtue will meditate the ruin of him who thus meditates.

    205
    Make not thy poverty a plea for ill;
    Thy evil deeds will make thee poorer still.
    Commit not evil, saying, I am poor: if you do, you will become poorer still.

    206
    What ranks as evil spare to do, if thou wouldst shun
    Affliction sore through ill to thee by others done.
    Let him not do evil to others who desires not that sorrows should pursue him.

    207
    From every enmity incurred there is to scape, a way;
    The wrath of evil deeds will dog mens steps, and slay.
    However great be the enmity men have incurred they may still live. The enmity of sin will incessantly pursue and kill.

    208
    Mans shadow dogs his steps whereer he wends;
    Destruction thus on sinful deeds attends.
    Destruction will dwell at the heels of those who commit evil even as their shadow that leaves them not.

    209
    Beware, if to thyself thyself is dear,
    Lest thou to aught that ranks as ill draw near!
    If a man love himself, let him not commit any sin however small.

    210
    The man, to devious way of sin that never turned aside,
    From ruin rests secure, whatever ills betide.
    Know ye that he is freed from destruction who commits no evil, going to neither side of the right path.

    1.2.18 The knowledge of what is Befitting a Mans Position

    211
    Duty demands no recompense; to clouds of heaven,
    By men on earth, what answering gift is given?
    Benevolence seeks not a return. What does the world give back to the clouds ?

    212
    The worthy say, when wealth rewards their toil-spent hours,
    For uses of beneficence alone tis ours.
    All the wealth acquired with perseverance by the worthy is for the exercise of benevolence.

    213
    To due beneficence no equal good we know,
    Amid the happy gods, or in this world below.
    It is difficult to obtain another good equal to benevolence either in this world or in that of the gods.

    214
    Who knows whats human lifes befitting grace,
    He lives; the rest mongst dead men have their place.
    He truly lives who knows (and discharges) the proper duties (of benevolence). He who knows the m not
    will be reckoned among the dead.

    215
    The wealth of men who love the fitting way, the truly wise,
    Is as when water fills the lake that village needs supplies.
    The wealth of that man of eminent knowledge who desires to exercise the benevolence approved of by the
    world, is like the full waters of a city-tank.

    216
    A tree that fruits in th hamlets central mart,
    Is wealth that falls to men of liberal heart.
    The wealth of a man (possessed of the virtue) of benevolence is like the ripening of a fruitful tree in the midst of a town.

    217
    Unfailing tree that healing balm distils from every part,
    Is ample wealth that falls to him of large and noble heart.
    If wealth be in the possession of a man who has the great excellence (of benevolence), it is like a tree which
    as a medicine is an infallible cure for disease.

    218
    Een when resources fall, they weary not of kindness due,-
    They to whom Dutys self appears in vision true.
    The wise who know what is duty will not scant their benevolence even when they are without wealth.

    219
    The kindly-hearted man is poor in this alone,
    When power of doing deeds of goodness he finds none.
    The poverty of a benevolent man, is nothing but his inability to exercise the same.

    220
    Though by beneficence, the loss of all should come,
    Twere meet man sold himself, and bought it with the sum.
    If it be said that loss will result from benevolence, such loss is worth being procured even by the sale of ones self.

    1.2.19 Giving

    221
    Call that a gift to needy men thou dost dispense,
    All else is void of good, seeking for recompense.
    To give to the destitute is true charity. All other gifts have the nature of (what is done for) a measured return.

    222
    Though men declare it heavenward path, yet to receive is ill;
    Though upper heaven were not, to give is virtue still.
    To beg is evil, even though it were said that it is a good path (to heaven). To give is good, even though
    it were said that those who do so cannot obtain heaven.

    223
    Ive nought is neer the high-born mans reply;
    He gives to those who raise themselves that cry.
    (Even in a low state) not to adopt the mean expedient of saying I have nothing, but to give, is the
    characteristic of the mad of noble birth.

    224
    The suppliants cry for aid yields scant delight,
    Until you see his face with grateful gladness bright.
    To see men begging from us in disagreeable, until we see their pleasant countenance.

    225
    Mid devotees theyre great who hungers pangs sustain,
    Who hungers pangs relieve a higher merit gain.
    The power of those who perform penance is the power of enduring hunger. It is inferior to the power of
    those who remove the hunger (of others).

    226
    Let man relieve the wasting hunger men endure;
    For treasure gained thus finds he treasure-house secure.
    The removal of the killing hunger of the poor is the place for one to lay up his wealth.

    227
    Whose soul delights with hungry men to share his meal,
    The hand of hungers sickness sore shall never feel.
    The fiery disease of hunger shall never touch him who habitually distributes his food to others.

    228
    Delight of gladning human hearts with gifts do they not know.
    Men of unpitying eye, who hoard their wealth and lose it so?
    Do the hard-eyed who lay up and lose their possessions not know the happiness which springs from the pleasure of giving ?

    229
    They keep their garners full, for self alone the board they spread;-
    Tis greater pain, be sure, than begging daily bread!
    Solitary and unshared eating for the sake of filling up ones own riches is certainly much more unpleasant than begging.

    230
    Tis bitter pain to die, Tis worse to live.
    For him who nothing finds to give!
    Nothing is more unpleasant than death: yet even that is pleasant where charity cannot be exercised.

    1.2.20 Renown

    231
    See that thy life the praise of generous gifts obtain;
    Save this for living man exists no real gain.
    Give to the poor and live with praise. There is no greater profit to man than that.

    232
    The speech of all that speak agrees to crown
    The men that give to those that ask, with fair renown.
    Whatsoever is spoken in the world will abide as praise upon that man who gives alms to the poor.

    233
    Save praise alone that soars on high,
    Nought lives on earth that shall not die.
    There is nothing that stands forth in the world imperishable, except fame, exalted in solitary greatness.

    234
    If men do virtuous deeds by world-wide ample glory crowned,
    The heavens will cease to laud the sage for other gifts renowned.
    If one has acquired extensive fame within the limits of this earth, the world of the Gods will no longer praise
    those sages who have attained that world.

    235
    Loss that is gain, and death of lifes true bliss fulfilled,
    Are fruits which only wisdom rare can yield.
    Prosperity to the body of fame, resulting in poverty to the body of flesh and the stability to the former arising
    from the death of the latter, are achievable only by the wise.

    236
    If man you walk the stage, appear adorned with glorys grace;
    Save glorious you can shine, twere better hide your face.
    If you are born (in this world), be born with qualities conductive to fame. From those who are destitute of them
    it will be better not to be born.

    237
    If you your days will spend devoid of goodly fame,
    When men despise, why blame them? Youve yourself to blame.
    Why do those who cannot live with praise, grieve those who despise them, instead of grieving themselves for their own inability.

    238
    Fame is virtues child, they say; if, then,
    You childless live, you live the scorn of men.
    Not to beget fame will be esteemed a disgrace by the wise in this world.

    239
    The blameless fruits of fields increase will dwindle down,
    If earth the burthen bear of men without renown.
    The ground which supports a body without fame will diminish in its rich produce.

    240
    Who live without reproach, them living men we deem;
    Who live without renown, live not, though living men they seem.
    Those live who live without disgrace. Those who live without fame live not.
    1.3 Ascetic Virtue
    1.3.1. The Possession of Benevolence

    241
    Wealth mid wealth is wealth kindliness;
    Wealth of goods the vilest too possess.
    The wealth of kindness is wealth of wealth, in as much as the wealth of property is possessed by the basest of men.

    242
    The law of grace fulfil, by methods good due trial made,
    Though many systems you explore, this is your only aid.
    (Stand) in the good path, consider, and be kind. Even considering according to the conflicting tenets
    of the different sects, kindness will be your best aid, (in the acquisition of heavenly bliss.)

    243
    They in whose breast a gracious kindliness resides,
    See not the gruesome world, where darkness drear abides.
    They will never enter the world of darkness and wretchedness whose minds are the abode of kindness.

    244
    Who for undying souls of men provides with gracious zeal,
    In his own soul the dreaded guilt of sin shall never feel.
    (The wise) say that the evils, which his soul would dread, will never come upon the man who exercises
    kindness and protects the life (of other creatures)

    245
    The teeming earths vast realm, round which the wild winds blow,
    Is witness, men of grace no woeful want shall know.
    This great rich earth over which the wind blows, is a witness that sorrow never comes upon the kind-hearted.

    246
    Gain of true wealth oblivious they eschew,
    Who grace forsake, and graceless actions do.
    (The wise) say that those who neglect kindness and practise cruelties, neglected virtue (in their former birth),
    and forgot (the sorrows which they must suffer.)

    247
    As to impoverished men this present world is not;
    The graceless in you world have neither part nor lot.
    As this world is not for those who are without wealth, so that world is not for those who are without kindness.

    248
    Who lose the flower of wealth, when seasons change, again may bloom;
    Who lose benevolence, lose all; nothing can change their doom.
    Those who are without wealth may, at some future time, become prosperous; those who are destitute of kindness
    are utterly destitute; for them there is no change.

    249
    When souls unwise true wisdoms mystic vision see,
    The graceless man may work true works of charity.
    If you consider, the virtue of him who is without kindness is like the perception of the true being by him who is
    without wisdom.

    250
    When weaker men you front with threatning brow,
    Think how you felt in presence of some stronger foe.
    When a man is about to rush upon those who are weaker than himself, let him remember how he has stood
    (trembling) before those who are stronger than himself.

    1.3.2 The Renunciation of Flesh

    251
    How can the wont of kindly grace to him be known,
    Who other creatures flesh consumes to feed his own?
    How can he be possessed of kindness, who to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other creatures.

    252
    No use of wealth have they who guard not their estate;
    No use of grace have they with flesh who hunger sate.
    As those possess no property who do not take care of it, so those possess no kindness who feed on flesh.

    253
    Like heart of them that murderous weapons bear, his mind,
    Who eats of savoury meat, no joy in good can find.
    Like the (murderous) mind of him who carries a weapon (in his hand), the mind of him who feasts with pleasure
    on the body of another (creature), has no regard for goodness.

    254
    Whats grace, or lack of grace? To kill is this, that not to kill;
    To eat dead flesh can never worthy end fulfil.
    If it be asked what is kindness and what its opposite, the answer would be preservation and destruction of life;
    and therefore it is not right to feed on the flesh (obtained by taking away life).

    255
    If flesh you eat not, lifes abodes unharmed remain;
    Who eats, hell swallows him, and renders not again.
    Not to eat flesh contributes to the continuance of life; therefore if a man eat flesh, hell will not open its mouth
    (to let him escape out, after he has once fallen in).

    256
    We eat the slain, you say, by us no living creatures die;
    Whod kill and sell, I pray, if none came there the flesh to buy?
    If the world does not destroy life for the purpose of eating, then no one would sell flesh for the sake of money.

    257
    With other beings ulcerous wounds their hunger they appease;
    If this they felt, desire to eat must surely cease.
    If men should come to know that flesh is nothing but the unclean ulcer of a body, let them abstain from eating it.

    258
    Whose souls the vision pure and passionless perceive,
    Eat not the bodies men of life bereave.
    The wise, who have freed themselves from mental delusion, will not eat the flesh which has been severed from an animal.

    259
    Than thousand rich oblations, with libations rare,
    Better the flesh of slaughtered beings not to share.
    Not to kill and eat (the flesh of) an animal, is better than the pouring forth of ghee etc., in a thousand sacrifices.

    260
    Who slays nought,- flesh rejects- his feet before
    All living things with clasped hands adore.
    All creatures will join their hands together, and worship him who has never taken away life, nor eaten flesh.

    1.3.3 Penance

    261
    To bear due penitential pains, while no offence
    He causes others, is the type of penitence.
    The nature of religious discipline consists, in the endurance (by the ascetic) of the sufferings which it brings
    on himself, and in abstaining from giving pain to others.

    262
    To penitents sincere avails their penitence;
    Where that is not, tis but a vain pretence.
    Austerities can only be borne, and their benefits enjoyed, by those who have practised them (in a former birth);
    it will be useless for those who have not done so, to attempt to practise them (now).

    263
    Have other men forgotten penitence who strive
    To earn for penitents the things by which they live?
    It is to provide food etc, for the ascetics who have abandoned (the desire of earthly possessions) that other
    persons have forgotten (to practise) austerity ?

    264
    Destruction to his foes, to friends increase of joy.
    The penitent can cause, if this his thoughts employ.
    If (the ascetic) desire the destruction of his enemies, or the aggrandizement of his friends, it will be effected
    by (the power of) his austerities.

    265
    That what they wish may, as they wish, be won,
    By men on earth are works of painful penance done.
    Religious dislipline is practised in this world, because it secures the attainment of whatever one may wish
    to enjoy (in the world to come).

    266
    Who works of penance do, their end attain,
    Others in passions net enshared, toil but in vain.
    Those discharge their duty who perform austerities; all others accomplish their own destruction, through the
    entanglement of the desire (of riches and sensual pleasure).

    267
    The hotter glows the fining fire, the gold the brighter shines;
    The pain of penitence, like fire, the soul of man refines.
    Just as gold is purified as heated in the fire, will those shine, who have endured the burning of pain (in frequent austerities).

    268
    Who gains himself in utter self-control,
    Him worships every other living soul.
    All other creatures will worship him who has attained the control of his own soul.

    269
    Een over death the victory he may gain,
    If power by penance won his soul obtain.
    Those who have attained the power which religious discipline confers, will be able also to pass the limit of
    Yama, (the God of death).

    270
    The many all things lack! The cause is plain,
    The penitents are few. The many shun such pain.
    Because there are few who practise austerity and many who do not, there are many destitute and few rich in this world.

    1.3.4 Inconsistent Conduct

    271
    Who with deceitful mind in false way walks of covert sin,
    The five-fold elements his frame compose, decide within.
    The five elements (of his body) will laugh within him at the feigned conduct of the deceitful minded man.

    272
    What gain, though virtues semblance high as heaven his fame exalt,
    If heart dies down through sense of self-detected fault?
    What avails an appearance (of sanctity) high as heaven, if his mind suffers (the indulgence) of conscious sin.

    273
    As if a steer should graze wrapped round with tigers skin,
    Is show of virtuous might when weakness lurks within.
    The assumed appearance of power, by a man who has no power (to restrain his senses and perform austerity),
    is like a cow feeding on grass covered with a tigers skin.

    274
    Tis as a fowler, silly birds to snare, in thicket lurks.
    When, clad in stern ascetic garb, one secret evil works.
    He who hides himself under the mask of an ascetic and commits sins, like a sportsman who conceals himself in
    the thicket to catch birds.

    275
    Our souls are free, who say, yet practise evil secretly,
    What folly have we wrought! by many shames oer-whelmed, shall cry.
    The false conduct of those who say they have renounced all desire will one day bring them sorrows that will make
    them cry out, Oh! what have we done, what have we done.

    276
    In mind renouncing nought, in speech renouncing every tie,
    Who guileful live,- no men are found than these of harder eye.
    Amongst living men there are none so hard-hearted as those who without to saking (desire) in their heart, falsely
    take the appearance of those who have forsaken (it).

    277
    Outward, they shine as kunri berrys scarlet bright;
    Inward, like tip of kunri bead, as black as night.
    (The world) contains persons whose outside appears (as fair) as the (red) berry of the Abrus, but whose
    inside is as black as the nose of that berry.

    278
    Many wash in hollowed waters, living lives of hidden shame;
    Foul in heart, yet high upraised of men in virtuous fame.
    There are many men of masked conduct, who perform their ablutions, and (make a show) of greatness,
    while their mind is defiled (with guilt).

    279
    Cruel is the arrow straight, the crooked lute is sweet,
    Judge by their deeds the many forms of men you meet.
    As, in its use, the arrow is crooked, and the curved lute is straight, so by their deeds, (and not by their appearance)
    let (the uprightness or crookedness of) men be estimated.

    280
    Whats the worth of shaven head or tresses long,
    If you shun what all the world condemns as wrong?
    There is no need of a shaven crown, nor of tangled hair, if a man abstain from those deeds which the wise have condemned.

    1.3.5 The Absence of Fraud

    281
    Who seeks heavens joys, from impious levity secure,
    Let him from every fraud preserve his spirit pure.
    Let him, who desires not to be despised, keep his mind from (the desire of) defrauding another of the smallest thing.

    282
    Tis sin if in the mind man but thought conceive;
    By fraud I will my neighbour of his wealth bereave.
    Even the thought (of sin) is sin; think not then of crafiily stealing the property of another.

    283
    The gain that comes by fraud, although it seems to grow
    With limitless increase, to ruin swift shall go.
    The property, which is acquired by fraud, will entirely perish, even while it seems to increase.

    284
    The lust inveterate of fraudful gain,
    Yields as its fruit undying pain.
    The eager desire of defrauding others will, when it brings forth its fruit, produce undying sorrow.

    285
    Grace is not in their thoughts, nor know they kind affections power,
    Who neighbours goods desire, and watch for his unguarded hour.
    The study of kindness and the exercise of benevolence is not with those who watch for anothers forgetfulness,
    though desire of his property.

    286
    They cannot walk restrained in wisdoms measured bound,
    In whom inveterate lust of fraudful gain is found.
    They cannot walk steadfastly, according to rule, who eagerly desire to defraud others.

    287
    Practice of frauds dark cunning arts they shun,
    Who long for power by measured wisdom won.
    That black-knowledge which is called fraud, is not in those who desire that greatness which is called rectitude.

    288
    As virtue dwells in heart that measured wisdom gains;
    Deceit in hearts of fraudful men established reigns.
    Deceit dwells in the mind of those who are conversant with fraud, even as virtue in the mind s of those who
    are conversant with rectitude.

    289
    Who have no lore save that which fraudful arts supply,
    Acts of unmeasured vice committing straightway die.
    Those, who are acquainted with nothing but fraud, will perish in the very commission of transgression.

    290
    The fraudful forfeit life and being here below;
    Who fraud eschew the bliss of heavenly beings know.
    Even their body will fail the fraudulent; but even the world of the gods will not fail those who are free from fraud.

    1.3.6 Veracity

    291
    You ask, in lips of men what truth may be;
    Tis speech from every taint of evil free.
    Truth is the speaking of such words as are free from the least degree of evil (to others).

    292
    Falsehood may take the place of truthful word,
    If blessing, free from fault, it can afford.
    Even falsehood has the nature of truth, if it confer a benefit that is free from fault.

    293
    Speak not a word which false thy own heart knows
    Self-kindled fire within the false ones spirit glows.
    Let not a man knowingly tell a lie; for after he has told the lie, his mind will burn him (with the memory of his guilt).

    294
    True to his inmost soul who lives,- enshrined
    He lives in souls of all mankind.
    He who, in his conduct, preserves a mind free from deceit, will dwell in the minds of all men.

    295
    Greater is he who speaks the truth with full consenting mind.
    Than men whose lives have penitence and charity combined.
    He, who speaks truth with all his heart, is superior to those who make gifts and practise austerities.

    296
    No praise like that of words from falsehood free;
    This every virtue yields spontaneously.
    There is no praise like the praise of never uttering a falsehood: without causing any suffering, it will lead to every virtue.

    297
    If all your life be utter truth, the truth alone,
    Tis well, though other virtuous acts be left undone.
    If a man has the power to abstain from falsehood, it will be well with him, even though he practise no other virtue.

    298
    Outward purity the water will bestow;
    Inward purity from truth alone will flow.
    Purity of body is produced by water and purity of mind by truthfulness.

    299
    Every lamp is not a lamp in wise mens sight;
    Thats the lamp with truths pure radiance bright.
    All lamps of nature are not lamps; the lamp of truth is the lamp of the wise.

    300
    Of all good things weve scanned with studious care,
    Theres nought that can with truthfulness compare.
    Amidst all that we have seen (described) as real (excellence), there is nothing so good as truthfulness.

    1.3.7 The not being Angry

    301
    Where thou hast power thy angry will to work, thy wrath restrain;
    Where power is none, what matter if thou check or give it rein?
    He restrains his anger who restrains it when it can injure; when it cannot injure, what does it matter whether he restrain it, or not ?

    302
    Where power is none to wreak thy wrath, wrath importent is ill;
    Where thou hast power thy will to work, tis greater, evil still.
    Anger is bad, even when it cannot injure; when it can injure; there is no greater evil.

    303
    If any rouse thy wrath, the trespass straight forget;
    For wrath an endless train of evils will beget.
    Forget anger towards every one, as fountains of evil spring from it.

    304
    Wrath robs the face of smiles, the heart of joy,
    What other foe to man works such annoy?
    Is there a greater enemy than anger, which kills both laughter and joy ?

    305
    If thou wouldst guard thyself, guard against wrath alway;
    Gainst wrath who guards not, him his wrath shall sla y.
    If a man would guard himself, let him guard against anger; if he do not guard it, anger will kill him.

    306
    Wrath, the fire that slayeth whose draweth near,
    Will burn the helpful raft of kindred dear.
    The fire of anger will burn up even the pleasant raft of friendship.

    307
    The hand that smites the earth unfailing feels the sting;
    So perish they who nurse their wrath as noble thing.
    Destruction will come upon him who ragards anger as a good thing, as surely as the hand of him who strikes the ground will not fail.

    308
    Though men should work thee woe, like touch of tongues of fire.
    Tis well if thou canst save thy soul from burning ire.
    Though one commit things against you as painful (to bear) as if a bundle of fire had been thrust upon you,
    it will be well, to refrain, if possible, from anger.

    309
    If man his soul preserve from wrathful fires,
    He gains with that whateer his soul desires.
    If a man never indulges anger in his heart, he will at once obtain whatever he has thought of.

    310
    Men of surpassing wrath are like the men whove passed away;
    Who wrath renounce, equals of all-renouncing sages they.
    Those, who give way to excessive anger, are no better than dead men; but those, who are freed from it,
    are equal to those who are freed (from death).

    1.3.8 Not doing Evil

    311
    Though ill to neighbour wrought should glorious pride of wealth secure,
    No ill to do is fixed decree of men in spirit pure.
    It is the determination of the spotless not to cause sorrow to others, although they could (by so causing)
    obtain the wealth which confers greatness.

    312
    Though malice work its worst, planning no ill return, to endure,
    And work no ill, is fixed decree of men in spirit pure.
    It is the determination of the spotless not to do evil, even in return, to those who have cherished enmity and done them evil.

    313
    Though unprovoked thy soul malicious foes should sting,
    Retaliation wrought inevitable woes will bring.
    In an ascetic inflict suffering even on those who hate him, when he has not done them any evil, it will
    afterwards give him irretrievable sorrow.

    314
    To punish wrong, with kindly benefits the doers ply;
    Thus shame their souls; but pass the ill unheeded by.
    The (proper) punishment to those who have done evil (to you), is to put them to shame by showing them kindness,
    in return and to forget both the evil and the good done on both sides.

    315
    From wisdoms vaunted lore what doth the learner gain,
    If as his own he guard not others souls from pain?
    What benefit has he derived from his knowledge, who does not endeavour to keep off pain from another as much as from himself ?

    316
    What his own soul has felt as bitter pain,
    From making others feel should man abstain.
    Let not a man consent to do those things to another which, he knows, will cause sorrow.

    317
    To work no wilful woe, in any wise, through all the days,
    To any living soul, is virtues highest praise.
    It is the chief of all virtues not knowingly to do any person evil, even in the lowest degree, and at any time.

    318
    Whose soul has felt the bitter smart of wrong, how can
    He wrongs inflict on ever-living soul of man?
    Why does a man inflict upon other creatures those sufferings, which he has found by experience are sufferings to himself ?

    319
    If, ere the noontide, you to others evil do,
    Before the eventide will evil visit you.
    If a man inflict sorrow upon others in the morning, it will come upon him unsought in the very evening.

    320
    Oer every evil-doer evil broodeth still;
    He evil shuns who freedom seeks from ill.
    Sorrow will come upon those who cause pain to others; therfore those, who desire to be free from sorrow, give no pain to others.

    1.3.9 Not killing

    321
    What is the work of virtue? Not to kill;
    For killing leads to every work of ill.
    Never to destroy life is the sum of all virtuous conduct. The destruction of life leads to every evil.

    322
    Let those that need partake your meal; guard every-thing that lives;
    This the chief and sum of lore that hoarded wisdom gives.
    The chief of all (the virtues) which authors have summed up, is the partaking of food that has been shared
    with others, and the preservation of the mainfold life of other creatures.

    323
    Alone, first of goods things, is not to slay;
    The second is, no untrue word to say.
    Not to destroy life is an incomparably (great) good next to it in goodness ranks freedom from falsehood.

    324
    You ask, What is the good and perfect way?
    Tis path of him who studies nought to slay.
    Good path is that which considers how it may avoid killing any creature.

    325
    Of those who being dread, and all renounce, the chief are they,
    Who dreading crime of slaughter, study nought to slay.
    Of all those who, fearing the permanence of earthly births, have abandoned desire, he is the chief who,
    fearing (the guilt of) murder, considers how he may avoid the destruction of life.

    326
    Evn death that life devours, their happy days shall spare,
    Who law, Thou shall not kill, uphold with reverent care.
    Yama, the destroyer of life, will not attack the life of him, who acts under the determination of never destroying life.

    327
    Though thine own life for that spared life the price must pay,
    Take not from aught that lives gift of sweet life away.
    Let no one do that which would destroy the life of another, although he should by so doing, lose his own life.

    328
    Though great the gain of good should seem, the wise
    Will any gain by staughter won despise.
    The advantage which might flow from destroying life in sacrifice, is dishonourable to the wise
    (who renounced the world), even although it should be said to be productive of great good.

    329
    Whose trade is killing, always vile they show,
    To minds of them who what is vileness know.
    Men who destroy life are base men, in the estimation of those who know the nature of meanness.

    330
    Who lead a loathed life in bodies sorely pained,
    Are men, the wise declare, by guilt of slaughter stained.
    (The wise) will say that men of diseased bodies, who live in degradation and in poverty, are those who
    separated the life from the body of animals (in a former birth).

    1.3.10 Instability

    331
    Lowest and meanest lore, that bids men trust secure,
    In things that pass away, as things that shall endure!
    That ignorance which considers those things to be stable which are not so, is dishonourable (to the wise).

    332
    As crowds round dancers fill the hall, is wealths increase;
    Its loss, as throngs dispersing, when the dances cease.
    The acquisition of wealth is like the gathering together of an assembly for a theatre; its expenditure is like
    the breaking up of that assembly.

    333
    Unenduring is all wealth; if you wealth enjoy,
    Enduring works in working wealth straightway employ.
    Wealth is perishable; let those who obtain it immediately practise those (virtues) which are imperishable.

    334
    As day it vaunts itself; well understood, tis knife,
    That daily cuts away a portion from thy life.
    Time, which shows itself (to the ignorant) as if it were something (real) is in the estimation of the wise (only)
    a saw which cuts down life.

    335
    Before the tongue lie powerless, mid the gasp of gur gling breath,
    Arouse thyself, and do good deeds beyond the power of death.
    Let virtuous deeds be done quickly, before the biccup comes making the tongue silent.

    336
    Existing yesterday, today to nothing hurled!-
    Such greatness owns this transitory world.
    This world possesses the greatness that one who yesterday was is not today.

    337
    Who know not if their happy lives shall last the day,
    In fancies infinite beguile the hours away!
    Innumerable are the thoughts which occupy the mind of (the unwise), who know not that they shall live another moment.

    338
    Birds fly away, and leave the nest deserted bare;
    Such is the short-lived friendship soul and body share.
    The love of the soul to the body is like (the love of) a bird to its egg which it flies away from and leaves empty.

    339
    Death is sinking into slumbers deep;
    Birth again is waking out of sleep.
    Death is like sleep; birth is like awaking from it.

    340
    The soul in fragile shed as lodger courts repose:-
    Is it because no homes conclusive rest it knows?
    It seems as if the soul, which takes a temporary shelter in a body, had not attained a home.

    1.3.11 Renunciation

    341
    From whatever, aye, whatever, man gets free,
    From what, aye, from that, no more of pain hath he!
    Whatever thing, a man has renounced, by that thing; he cannot suffer pain.

    342
    Renunciation made- evn here true pleasures men acquire;
    Renounce while time is yet, if to those pleasures you aspire.
    After a man has renounced (all things), there will still be many things in this world (which he may enjoy);
    if he should desire them, let him, while it is time abandon. (the world).

    343
    Perceptions of the five must all expire;-
    Relinquished in its order each desire
    Let the five senses be destroyed; and at the same time, let everything be abandoned that (the ascetic) has (formerly) desired.

    344
    Privation absolute is penance true;
    Possession brings bewilderment anew.
    To be altogether destitute is the proper condition of those who perform austerities; if they possess anything,
    it will change (their resolution) and bring them back to their confused state.

    345
    To those who sevrance seek from beings varied strife,
    Flesh is burthen sore; what then other bonds of life?
    What means the addition of other things those who are attempting to cut off (future) births, when even their body is too much (for them).

    346
    Who kills conceit that utters I and mine,
    Shall enter realms above the powers divine.
    He who destroys the pride which says I, mine will enter a world which is difficult even to the Gods to attain.

    347
    Who cling to things that cling and eager clasp,
    Griefs cling to them with unrelaxing grasp.
    Sorrows will never let go their hold of those who give not up their hold of desire.

    348
    Who thoroughly renounce on highest height are set;
    The rest bewildered, lie entangled in the net.
    Those who have entirely renounced (all things and all desire) have obtained (absorption into God); all others
    wander in confusion, entangled in the net of (many) births.

    349
    When that which clings falls off, severed is beings tie;
    All else will then be seen as instability.
    At the moment in which desire has been abandoned, (other) births will be cut off; when that has not been done,
    instability will be seen.

    350
    Cling thou to that which He, to Whom nought clings, hath bid thee cling,
    Cling to that bond, to get thee free from every clinging thing.
    Desire the desire of Him who is without desire; in order to renounce desire, desire that desire.

    1.3.12 Knowledge of the Tru e

    351
    Of things devoid of truth as real things men deem;-
    Cause of degraded birth the fond delusive dream!
    Inglorious births are produced by the confusion (of mind) which considers those things to be real which are not real.

    352
    Darkness departs, and rapture springs to men who see,
    The mystic vision pure, from all delusion free.
    A clear, undimmed vision of things will deliver its possessors from the darkness of future births, and confer the felicity (of heaven).

    353
    When doubts disperse, and mists of error roll
    Away, nearer is heavn than earth to sages soul.
    Heaven is nearer than earth to those men of purified minds who are freed from from doubt.

    354
    Five-fold perception gained, what benefits accrue
    To them whose spirits lack perception of the true?
    Even those who have all the knowledge which can be attained by the five senses, will derive no benefit from it,
    if they are without a knowledge of the true nature of things.

    355
    Whatever thing, of whatsoever kind it be,
    Tis wisdoms part in each the very thing to see.
    (True) knowledge is the perception concerning every thing of whatever kind, that that thing is the true thing.

    356
    Who learn, and here the knowledge of the true obtain,
    Shall find the path that hither cometh not again.
    They, who in this birth have learned to know the True Being, enter the road which returns not into this world.

    357
    The mind that knows with certitude what is, and ponders well,
    Its thoughts on birth again to other life need not to dwell.
    Let it not be thought that there is another birth for him whose mind having thoroughly considered
    (all it has been taught) has known the True Being.

    358
    When folly, cause of births, departs; and soul can view
    The truth of things, mans dignity- tis wisdom true.
    True knowledge consists in the removal of ignorance; which is (the cause of) births, and the perception
    of the True Being who is (the bestower of) heaven.

    359
    The true support who knows- rejects supports he sought before-
    Sorrow that clings all destroys, shall cling to him no more.
    He who so lives as to know Him who is the support of all things and abandon all desire, will be freed from
    the evils which would otherwise cleave to him and destroy (his efforts after absorption).

    360
    When lust and wrath and errors triple tyranny is oer,
    Their very names for aye extinct, then pain shall be no more.
    If the very names of these three things, desire, anger, and confusion of mind, be destroyed, then will also
    perish evils (which flow from them).

    1.3.8 The Extirpation of Desire

    361
    The wise declare, through all the days, to every living thing.
    That ceaseless round of birth from seed of strong desire doth spring.
    (The wise) say that the seed, which produces unceasing births, at all times, to all creatures, is desire.

    362
    If desire you feel, freedom from changing birth require!
    I will come, if you desire to scape, set free from all desire.
    If anything be desired, freedom from births should be desired; that (freedom from births) will be attained by
    desiring to be without desire.

    363
    No glorious wealth is here like freedom from desire;
    To bliss like this not even there can soul aspire.
    There is in this world no excellence equal to freedom from desire; and even in that world, there is nothing like it.

    364
    Desires decease as purity men know;
    That, too, from yearning search for truth will grow.
    Purity (of mind) consists in freedom from desire; and that (freedom from desire) is the fruit of the love of truth.

    365
    Men freed from bonds of strong desire are free;
    None other share such perfect lib erty.
    They are said to be free (from future birth) who are freed from desire; all others (who, whatever else they may be
    free from, are not freed from desire) are not thus free.

    366
    Desire each soul beguiles;
    True virtue dreads its wiles.
    It is the chief duty of (an ascetic) to watch against desire with (jealous) fear; for it has power to deceive (and destroy) him.

    367
    Who thoroughly rids his life of passion-prompted deed,
    Deeds of unfailing worth shall do, which, as he plans, succeed.
    If a man thoroughly cut off all desire, the deeds, which confer immortality, will come to him, in the path in which he seeks them.

    368
    Affliction is not known where no desires abide;
    Where these are, endless rises sorrows tide.
    There is no sorrow to those who are without desire; but where that is, (sorrow) will incessantly come, more and more.

    369
    When dies away desire, that woe of woes
    Evn here the soul unceasing rapture knows.
    Even while in this body, joy will never depart (from the mind, in which) desire, that sorrow of sorrows, has been destroyed.

    370
    Drive from thy soul desire insatiate;
    Straightway is gained the moveless blissful state.
    The removal of desire, whose nature it is never to be satisfied, will immediately confer a nature that can never be changed.
    1.4 Fate
    1.4.1 Fate

    371
    Wealth-giving fate power of unflinching effort brings;
    From fate that takes away idle remissness springs.
    Perseverance comes from a prosperous fate, and idleness from an adverse fate.

    372
    The fate that loss ordains makes wise mens wisdom foolishness;
    The fate that gain bestows with ampler powers will wisdom bless.
    An adverse fate produces folly, and a prosperous fate produces enlarged knowledge.

    373
    In subtle learning manifold though versed man be,
    The wisdom, truly his, will gain supremacy.
    Although (a man) may study the most polished treatises, the knowledge which fate has decreed to him will still prevail.

    374
    Two fold the fashion of the world: some live in fortunes light;
    While other some have souls in wisdoms radiance bright.
    There are (through fate) two different natures in the world, hence the difference (observable in men) in
    (their acquisition of) wealth, and in their attainment of knowledge.

    375
    All things that good appear will oft have ill success;
    All evil things prove good for gain of happiness.
    In the acquisition of property, every thing favourable becomes unfavourable, and (on the other hand) everything
    unfavourable becomes favourable, (through the power of fate).

    376
    Things not your own will yield no good, howeer you guard with pain;
    Your own, howeer you scatter them abroad, will yours remain.
    Whatever is not conferred by fate cannot be preserved although it be guarded with most painful care; and that,
    which fate has made his, cannot be lost, although one should even take it and throw it away.

    377
    Save as the sharer shares to each in due degree,
    To those who millions store enjoyment scarce can be.
    Even those who gather together millions will only enjoy them, as it has been determined by the disposer (of all things).

    378
    The destitute with ascetics merit share,
    If fate to visit with predestined ills would spare.
    The destitute will renounce desire (and become ascetics), if (fate) do not make them suffer the hindrances
    to which they are liable, and they pass away.

    379
    When good things come, men view them all as gain;
    When evils come, why then should they complain?
    How is it that those, who are pleased with good fortune, trouble themselves when evil comes,
    (since both are equally the decree of fa te) ?

    380
    What powers so great as those of Destiny? Mans skill
    Some other thing contrives; but fates beforehand still.
    What is stronger than fate ? If we think of an expedient (to avert it), it will itself be with us before (the thought).

    PART II. WEALTH

    2.1 Royalty
    2.1.1 The Greatness of a King

    381
    An army, people, wealth, a minister, friends, fort: six things-
    Who owns them all, a lion lives amid the kings.
    He who possesses these six things, an army, a people, wealth, ministers, friends and a fortress, is a lion among kings.

    382
    Courage, a liberal hand, wisdom, and energy: these four
    Are qualities a king adorn for evermore.
    Never to fail in these four things, fearlessness, liberality, wisdom, and energy, is the kingly character.

    383
    A sleepless promptitude, knowledge, decision strong:
    These three for aye to rulers of the land belong.
    These three things, viz., vigilance, learning, and bravery, should never be wanting in the ruler of a country.

    384
    Kingship, in virtue failing not, all vice restrains,
    In courage failing not, it honours grace maintains.
    He is a king who, with manly modesty, swerves not from virtue, and refrains from vice.

    385
    A king is he who treasure gains, stores up, defends,
    And duly for his kingdoms weal expends.
    He is a king who is able to acquire (wealth), to lay it up, to guard, and to distribute it.

    386
    Where king is easy of access, where no harsh word repels,
    That lands high praises every subject swells.
    The whole world will exalt the country of the king who is easy of access, and who is free from harsh language.

    387
    With pleasant speech, who gives and guards with powerful liberal hand,
    He sees the world obedient all to his command.
    The world will praise and submit itself to the mind of the king who is able to give with affability, and to
    protect all who come to him.

    388
    Who guards the realm and justice strict maintains,
    That king as god oer subject people reigns.
    That king, will be esteemed a God among men, who performs his own duties, and protects (his subjects).

    389
    The king of worth, who can words bitter to his ear endure,
    Beneath the shadow of his power the world abides secure.
    The whole world will dwell under the umbrella of the king, who can bear words that embitter the ear.

    390
    Gifts, grace, right sceptre, care of peoples weal;
    These four a light of dreaded kings reveal.
    He is the light of kings who has there four things, beneficence, benevolence, rectitude, and care for his people.

    2.1.2 Learning

    391
    So learn that you may full and faultless learning gain,
    Then in obedience meet to lessons learnt remain.
    Let a man learn thoroughly whatever he may learn, and let his conduct be worthy of his learning.

    392
    The twain that lore of numbers and of letters give
    Are eyes, the wise declare, to all on earth that live.
    Letters and numbers are the two eyes of man.

    393
    Men who learning gain have eyes, men say;
    Blockheads faces pairs of sores display.
    The learned are said to have eyes, but the unlearned have (merely) two sores in their face.

    394
    You meet with joy, with pleasant thought you part;
    Such is the learned scholars wonderous art!
    It is the part of the learned to give joy to those whom they meet, and on leaving, to make them think
    (Oh! when shall we meet them again.)

    395
    With soul submiss they stand, as paupers front a rich mans face;
    Yet learned men are first; thunlearned stand in lowest place.
    The unlearned are inferior to the learned, before whom they stand begging, as the destitute before the wealthy.

    396
    In sandy soil, when deep you delve, you reach the springs below;
    The more you learn, the freer streams of wisdom flow.
    Water will flow from a well in the sand in proportion to the depth to which it is dug, and knowledge will
    flow from a man in proportion to his learning.

    397
    The learned make each land their own, in every city find a home;
    Who, till they die; learn nought, along what weary ways they roam!
    How is it that any one can remain without learning, even to his death, when (to the learned man) every
    country is his own (country), and every town his own (town) ?

    398
    The man who store of learning gains,
    In one, through seven worlds, bliss attains.
    The learning, which a man has acquired in one birth, will yield him pleasure during seven births.

    399
    Their joy is joy of all the world, they see; thus more
    The learners learn to love their cherished lore.
    The learned will long (for more learning), when they see that while it gives pleasure to themselves,
    the world also derives pleasure from it.

    400
    Learning is excellence of wealth that none destroy;
    To man nought else affords reality of joy.
    Learning is the true imperishable riches; all other things are not riches.

    2.1.3 Ignorance

    401
    Like those at draughts would play without the chequered square,
    Men void of ample lore would counsels of the learned share.
    To speak in an assembly (of the learned) without fullness of knowledge, is like playing at chess (on a board) without squares.

    402
    Like those who doat on hoydens undeveloped charms are they,
    Of learning void, who eagerly their power of words display.
    The desire of the unlearned to speak (in an assembly), is like a woman without breasts desiring (the enjoyment of ) woman-hood.

    403
    The blockheads, too, may men of worth appear,
    If they can keep from speaking where the learned hear!
    The unlearned also are very excellent men, if they know how to keep silence before the learned.

    404
    From blockheads lips, when words of wisdom glibly flow,
    The wise receive them not, though good they seem to show.
    Although the natural knowledge of an unlearned man may be very good, the wise will not accept for true knowledge.

    405
    As worthless shows the worth of man unlearned,
    When council meets, by words he speaks discerned.
    The self-conceit of an unlearned man will fade away, as soon as he speaks in an assembly (of thelearned).

    406
    They are: so much is true of men untaught;
    But, like a barren field, they yield us nought!
    The unlearned are like worthless barren land: all that can be said of them is, that they exist.

    407
    Who lack the power of subtle, large, and penetrating sense,
    Like puppet, decked with ornaments of clay, their beautys vain pretence.
    The beauty and goodness of one who is destitute of knowledge by the study of great and exquisite works,
    is like (the beauty and goodness) of a painted earthen doll.

    408
    To men unlearned, from fortunes favour greater-evil springs
    Than poverty to men of goodly wisdom brings.
    Wealth, gained by the unlearned, will give more sorrow than the poverty which may come upon the learned.

    409
    Lower are men unlearned, though noble be their race,
    Than low-born men adorned with learnings grace.
    The unlearned, though born in a high caste, are not equal in dignity to the learned; though they may
    have been born in a low caste.

    410
    Learnings irradiating grace who gain,
    Others excel, as men the bestial train.
    As beasts by the side of men, so are other men by the side of those who are learned in celebrated works.

    2.1.4 Hearing

    411
    Wealth of wealth is wealth acquired be ear attent;
    Wealth mid all wealth supremely excellent.
    Wealth (gained) by the ear is wealth of wealth; that wealth is the chief of all wealth.

    412
    When tis no longer time the listening ear to feed
    With trifling dole of food supply the bodys need.
    When there is no food for the ear, give a little also to the stomach.

    413
    Who feed their ear with learned teachings rare,
    Are like the happy gods oblations rich who share.
    Those who in this world enjoy instruction which is the food of the ear, are equal to the Gods, who enjoy the food of the sacrifices.

    414
    Though learning none hath he, yet let him hear alway:
    In weakness this shall prove a staff and stay.
    Although a man be without learning, let him listen (to the teaching of the learned); that will be to him a staff in adversity.

    415
    Like staff in hand of him in slippery ground who strays
    Are words from mouth of those who walk in righteous ways.
    The words of the good are like a staff in a slippery place.

    416
    Let each man good things learn, for een as he
    Shall learn, he gains increase of perfect dignity.
    Let a man listen, never so little, to good (instruction), even that will bring him great dignity.

    417
    Not een through inadvertence speak they foolish word,
    With clear discerning mind whove learnings ample lessons heard.
    Not even when they have imperfectly understood (a matter), will those men speak foolishly, who have profoundly
    studied and diligently listened (to instruction).

    418
    Where teaching hath not oped the learners ear,
    The man may listen, but he scarce can hear.
    The ear which has not been bored by instruction, although it hears, is deaf.

    419
    Tis hard for mouth to utter gentle, modest word,
    When ears discourse of lore refined have never heard.
    It is a rare thing to find modesty, a reverend mouth- with those who have not received choice instruction.

    420
    His mouth can taste, but ear no taste of joy can give!
    What matter if he die, or prosperous live?
    What does it matter whether those men live or die, who can judge of tastes by the mouth, and not by the ear ?

    2.1.5 The Possession of Knowledge

    421
    True wisdom wards off woes, A circling fortress high;
    Its inner strength mans eager foes Unshaken will defy.
    Wisdom is a weapon to ward off destruction; it is an inner fortress which enemies cannot destroy.

    422
    Wisdom restrains, nor suffers mind to wander where it would;
    From every evil calls it back, and guides in way of good.
    Not to permit the mind to go where it lists, to keep it from evil, and to employ it in good, this is wisdom.

    423
    Though things diverse from divers sages lips we learn,
    Tis wisdoms part in each the true thing to discern.
    To discern the truth in every thing, by whomsoever spoken, is wisdom.

    424
    Wisdom hath use of lucid speech, words that acceptance win,
    And subtle sense of other mens discourse takes in.
    To speak so as that the meaning may easily enter the mind of the hearer, and to discern the subtlest thought
    which may lie hidden in the words of others, this is wisdom.

    425
    Wisdom embraces frank the world, to no caprice exposed;
    Unlike the lotus flower, now opened wide, now petals strictly closed.
    To secure the friendship of the great is true wisdom; it is (also) wisdom to keep (that friendship unchanged, and)
    not opening and closing (like the lotus flower).

    426
    As dwells the world, so with the world to dwell
    In harmony- this is to wisely live and well.
    T o live as the world lives, is wisdom.

    427
    The wise discern, the foolish fail to see,
    And minds prepare for things about to be.
    The wise are those who know beforehand what will happen; those who do not know this are the unwise.

    428
    Folly meets fearful ills with fearless heart;
    To fear where cause of fear exists is wisdoms part.
    Not to fear what ought to be feared, is folly; it is the work of the wise to fear what should be feared.

    429
    The wise with watchful soul who coming ills foresee;
    From coming evils dreaded shock are free.
    No terrifying calamity will happen to the wise, who (foresee) and guard against coming evils.

    430
    The wise is rich, with evry blessing blest;
    The fool is poor, of everything possessed.
    Those who possess wisdom, possess every thing; those who have not wisdom, whatever they may possess, have nothing.

    2.1.6 The Correction of Faults

    431
    Who arrogance, and wrath, and littleness of low desire restrain,
    To sure increase of lofty dignity attain.
    Truly great is the excellence of those (kings) who are free from pride, anger, and lust.

    432
    A niggard hand, oerweening self-regard, and mirth
    Unseemly, bring disgrace to men of kingly brith.
    Avarice, undignified pride, and low pleasures are faults in a king.

    433
    Though small as millet-seed the fault men deem;
    As palm tree vast to those who fear disgrace twill seem.
    Those who fear guilt, if they commit a fault small as a millet seed, will consider it to be as large as a palmyra tree.

    434
    Freedom from faults is wealth; watch heedfully
    Gainst these, for fault is fatal enmity.
    Guard against faults as a matter (of great consequence; for) faults are a deadly enemy.

    435
    His joy who guards not gainst the coming evil day,
    Like straw before the fire shall swift consume away.
    The prosperity of him who does not timely guard against faults, will perish like straw before fire.

    436
    Faultless the king who first his own faults cures, and then
    Permits himself to scan faults of other men.
    What fault will remain in the king who has put away his own evils, and looks after the evils of others.

    437
    Who leaves undone what should be done, with niggard mind,
    His wealth shall perish, leaving not a wrack behind.
    The wealth of the avaricious man, who does not expend it for the purposes for which he ought to expend
    it will waste away and not continue.

    438
    The greed of soul that avarice men call,
    When faults are summed, is worst of all.
    Griping avarice is not to be reckoned as one among other faults; (it stands alone - greater than all).

    439
    Never indulge in self-complaisant mood,
    Nor deed desire that yields no gain of good.
    Let no (one) praise himself, at any time; let him not desire to do useless things.

    440
    If, to your foes unknown, you cherish what you love,
    Counsels of men who wish you harm will harmless prove.
    If (a king) enjoys, privately the things which he desires, the designs of his enemies will be useless.

    2.1.7 Seeking the Aid of Great Men

    441
    As friends the men who virtue know, and riper wisdom share,
    Their worth weighed well, the king should choose with care.
    Let (a king) ponder well its value, and secure the friendship of men of virtue and of mature knowledge.

    442
    Cherish the all-accomplished men as friends,
    Whose skill the present ill removes, from coming ill defends.
    Let (a king) procure and kindly care for men who can overcome difficulties when they occur, and guard
    against them before they happen.

    443
    To cherish men of mighty soul, and make them all their own,
    Of kingly treasures rare, as rarest gift is known.
    To cherish great men and make them his own, is the most difficult of all difficult things.

    444
    To live with men of greatness that their own excels,
    As cherished friends, is greatest power that with a monarch dwells.
    So to act as to make those men, his own, who are greater than himself is of all powers the highest.

    445
    The king, since counsellors are monarchs eyes,
    Should counsellors select with counsel wise.
    As a king must use his ministers as eyes (in managing his kingdom), let him well examine their character and
    qualifications before he engages them.

    446
    The king, who knows to live with worthy men allied,
    Has nought to fear from any foemans pride.
    There will be nothing left for enemies to do, against him who has the power of acting (so as to secure) the
    fellowship of worthy men.

    447
    What power can work his fall, who faithful ministers
    Employs, that thunder out reproaches when he errs.
    Who are great enough to destroy him who has servants that have power to rebuke him ?

    448
    The king with none to censure him, bereft of safeguards all,
    Though none his ruin work, shall surely ruined fall.
    The king, who is without the guard of men who can rebuke him, will perish, even though there be no one to destroy him.

    449
    Who owns no principal, can have no gain of usury;
    Who lacks support of friends, knows no stability.
    There can be no gain to those who have no capital; and in like manner there can be no permanence to those
    who are without the support of adherents.

    450
    Than hate of many foes incurred, works greater woe
    Ten-fold, of worthy men the friendship to forego.
    It is tenfold more injurious to abandon the friendship of the good, than to incur the hatred of the many.

    2.1.8. Avoiding mean Associations

    451
    The great of soul will mean association fear;
    The mean of soul regard mean men as kinsmen dear.
    (True) greatness fears the society of the base; it is only the low - minded who will regard them as friends.

    452
    The waters virtues change with soil through which they flow;
    As mans companionship so will his wisdom show.
    As water changes (its nature), from the nature of the soil (in which it flows), so will the character of men
    resemble that of their associates.

    453
    Perceptions manifold in men are of the mind alone;
    The value of the man by his companionship is known.
    The power of knowing is from the mind; (but) his character is from that of his associates.

    454
    Mans wisdom seems the offspring of his mind;
    Tis outcome of companionship we find.
    Wisdom appears to rest in the mind, but it really exists to a man in his companions.

    455
    Both purity of mind, and purity of action clear,
    Leaning no staff of pure companionship, to man draw near.
    Chaste company is the staff on which come, these two things, viz, purity of mind and purity of conduct.

    456
    From true pure-minded men a virtuous race proceeds;
    To men of pure companionship belong no evil deeds.
    To the pure-minded there will be a good posterity. By those whose associates are pure, no deeds will be done that are not good.

    457
    Goodness of mind to lives of men increaseth gain;
    And good companionship doth all of praise obtain.
    Goodness of mind will give wealth, and good society will bring with it all praise, to men.

    458
    To perfect men, though minds right good belong,
    Yet good companionship is confirmation strong.
    Although they may have great (natural) goodness of mind, yet good society will tend to strengthen it.

    459
    Although to mental goodness joys of other life belong,
    Y et good companionship is confirmation strong.
    Future bliss is (the result) of goodness of mind; and even this acquires strength from the society of the good.

    460
    Than good companionship no surer help we know;
    Than bad companionship nought causes direr woe.
    There is no greater help than the company of the good; there is no greater source of sorrow than the company of the wicked.

    2.1.9. Acting after due Consideration

    461
    Expenditure, return, and profit of the deed
    In time to come; weigh these- than to the act proceed.
    Let a man reflect on what will be lost, what will be acquired and (from these) what will be his ultimate
    gain, and (then, let him) act.

    462
    With chosen friends deliberate; next use the private thought;
    Then act. By those who thus proceed all works with ease are wrought.
    There is nothing too difficult to (be attained by) those who, before they act, reflect well themselves,
    and thoroughly consider (the matter) with chosen friends.

    463
    To risk ones all and lose, aiming at added gain,
    Is rash affair, from which the wise abstain.
    Wise men will not, in the hopes of profit, undertake works that will consume their principal.

    464
    A work of which the issue is not clear,
    Begin not they reproachful scorn who fear.
    Those who fear reproach will not commence anything which has not been (thoroughly considered) and made clear to them.

    465
    With plans not well matured to rise against your foe,
    Is way to plant him out where he is sure to grow!
    One way to promote the prosperity of an enemy, is (for a king) to set out (to war) without having thoroughly
    weighed his ability (to cope with its chances).

    466
    Tis ruin if man do an unbefitting thing;
    Fit things to leave undone will equal ruin bring.
    He will perish who does not what is not fit to do; and he also will perish who does not do what it is fit to do.

    467
    Think, and then dare the deed! Who cry,
    Deed dared, well think, disgraced shall be.
    Consider, and then undertake a matter; after having undertaken it, to say We will consider, is folly.

    468
    On no right system if man toil and strive,
    Though many men assist, no work can thrive.
    The work, which is not done by suitable methods, will fail though many stand to uphold it.

    469
    Though well the work be done, yet one mistake is made,
    To habitudes of various men when no regard is paid.
    There are failures even in acting well, when it is done without knowing the various dispositions of men.

    470
    Plan and perform no work that others may despise;
    What misbeseems a king the world will not approve as wise.
    Let a man reflect, and do things which bring no reproach; the world will not approve, with him, of things
    which do not become of his position to adopt.

    2.1.10. The Knowledge of Power

    471
    The force the strife demands, the force he owns, the force of foes,
    The force of friends; these should he weigh ere to the war he goes.
    Let (one) weigh well the strength of the deed (he purposes to do), his own strength, the strength of his enemy,
    and the strength of the allies (of both), and then let him act.

    472
    Who know what can be wrought, with knowledge of the means, on this,
    Their mind firm set, go forth, nought goes with them amiss.
    There is nothing which may not be accomplished by those who, before they attack (an enemy), make themselves
    acquainted with their own ability, and with whatever else is (needful) to be known, and apply themselves wholly to their object.

    473
    Ill-deeming of their proper powers, have many monarchs striven,
    And midmost of unequal conflict fallen asunder riven.
    There are many who, ignoran t of their (want of) power (to meet it), have haughtily set out to war, and broken down in the midst of it.

    474
    Who not agrees with those around, no moderation knows,
    In self-applause indulging, swift to ruin goes.
    He will quickly perish who, ignorant of his own resources flatters himself of his greatness, and does not
    live in peace with his neighbours.

    475
    With peacock feathers light, you load the wain;
    Yet, heaped too high, the axle snaps in twain.
    The axle tree of a bandy, loaded only with peacocks feathers will break, if it be greatly overloaded.

    476
    Who daring climbs, and would himself upraise
    Beyond the branchs tip, with life the forfeit pays.
    There will be an end to the life of him who, having climbed out to the end of a branch, ventures to go further.

    477
    With knowledge of the measure due, as virtue bids you give!
    That is the way to guard your wealth, and seemly live.
    Let a man know the measure of his ability (to give), and let him give accordingly; such giving is the way to
    preserve his property.

    478
    Incomings may be scant; but yet, no failure there,
    If in expenditure you rightly learn to spare.
    Even though the income (of a king) be small, it will not cause his (ruin), if his outgoings be not larger than his income.

    479
    Who prosperous lives and of enjoyment knows no bound,
    His seeming wealth, departing, nowhere shall be found.
    The prosperity of him who lives without knowing the measure (of his property), will perish, even while it seems to continue.

    480
    Beneficence that measures not its bound of means,
    Will swiftly bring to nought the wealth on which it leans.
    The measure of his wealth will quickly perish, whose liberality weighs not the measure of his property.

    2.1.11. Knowing the fitting Time

    481
    A crow will conquer owl in broad daylight;
    The king that foes would crush, needs fitting time to fight.
    A crow will overcome an owl in the day time; so the king who would conquer his enemy must have (a suitable) time.

    482
    The bond binds fortune fast is ordered effort made,
    Strictly observant still of favouring seasons aid.
    Acting at the right season, is a cord that will immoveably bind success (to a king).

    483
    Can any work be hard in very fact,
    If men use fitting means in timely act?
    Is there anything difficult for him to do, who acts, with (the right) instruments at the right time ?

    484
    The pendant worlds dominion may be won,
    In fitting time and place by action done.
    Though (a man) should meditate (the conquest of) the world, he may accomplish it if he acts in the right time,
    and at the right place.

    485
    Who think the pendant world itself to subjugate,
    With mind unruffled for the fitting time must wait.
    They who thoughtfully consider and wait for the (right) time (for action), may successfully meditate
    (the conquest of) the world.

    486
    The men of mighty power their hidden energies repress,
    As fighting ram recoils to rush on foe with heavier stress.
    The self-restraint of the energetic (while waiting for a suitable opportunity), is like the drawing back of a
    fighting-ram in order to butt.

    487
    The glorious once of wrath enkindled make no outward show,
    At once; they bide their time, while hidden fires within them glow.
    The wise will not immediately and hastily shew out their anger; they will watch their time, and restrain it within.

    488
    If foes detested form they see, with patience let them bear;
    When fateful hour at last they spy,- the head lies there.
    If one meets his enemy, let him show him all respect, until the time for his destruction is come;
    when that is come, his head will be easily b rought low.

    489
    When hardest gain of opportunity at last is won,
    With promptitude let hardest deed be done.
    If a rare opportunity occurs, while it lasts, let a man do that which is rarely to be accomplished
    (but for such an opportunity).

    490
    As heron stands with folded wing, so wait in waiting hour;
    As heron snaps its prey, when fortune smiles, put forth your power.
    At the time when one should use self-control, let him restrain himself like a heron; and, let him like it, strike,
    when there is a favourable opportunity.

    2.1.12. Knowing the Place

    491
    Begin no work of war, depise no foe,
    Till place where you can wholly circumvent you know.
    Let not (a king) despise (an enemy), nor undertake any thing (against him), until he has obtained (a suitable)
    place for besieging him.

    492
    Though skill in war combine with courage tried on battle-field,
    The added gain of fort doth great advantage yield.
    Even to those who are men of power and expedients, an attack in connection with a fortification will yield many advantages.

    493
    Een weak ones mightily prevail, if place of strong defence,
    They find, protect themselves, and work their foes offence.
    Even the powerless will become powerful and conquer, if they select a proper field (of action),
    and guard themselves, while they make war on their enemies.

    494
    The foes who thought to triumph, find their thoughts were vain,
    If hosts advance, seize vantage ground, and thence the fight maintain.
    If they who draw near (to fight) choose a suitable place to approach (their enemy), the latter, will have
    to relinquish the thought which they once entertained, of conquering them.

    495
    The crocodile prevails in its own flow of water wide,
    If this it leaves, tis slain by anything beside.
    In deep water, a crocodile will conquer (all other animals); but if it leave the water, other animals will conquer it.

    496
    The lofty car, with mighty wheel, sails not oer watery main,
    The boat that skims the sea, runs not on earths hard plain.
    Wide chariots, with mighty wheels, will not run on the ocean; neither will ships that the traverse ocean, move on the earth.

    497
    Save their own fearless might they need no other aid,
    If in right place they fight, all due provision made.
    You will need no other aid than fearlessness, if you thoroughly reflect (on what you are to do), and select
    (a suitable) place for your operations.

    498
    If lord of army vast the safe retreat assail
    Of him whose host is small, his mightiest efforts fail.
    The power of one who has a large army will perish, if he goes into ground where only a small army can act.

    499
    Though fort be none, and store of wealth they lack,
    Tis hard a peoples homesteads to attack!
    It is a hazardous thing to attack men in their own country, although they may neither have power nor a good fortress.

    500
    The jackal slays, in miry paths of foot-betraying fen,
    The elephant of fearless eye and tusks transfixing armed men.
    A fox can kill a fearless, warrior-faced elephant, if it go into mud in which its legs sink down.

    2.1.13. Selection and Confidence

    501
    How treats he virtue, wealth and pleasure? How, when lifes at stake,
    Comports himself? This four-fold test of man will full assurance make.
    Let (a minister) be chosen, after he has been tried by means of these four things, viz,-his virtue, (love of) money, (love of)
    sexual pleasure, and tear of (losing) life.

    502
    Of noble race, of faultless worth, of generous pride
    That shrinks from shame or stain; in him may king confide.
    (The kings) choice should (fall) on him, who is of good family, who is free from faults, and who has the modesty
    which fears the wounds (of sin).

    503
    Though deeply learned, unflecked by fault, tis rare to see,
    When closely scanned, a man from all unwisdom free.
    When even men, who have studied the most difficult works, and who are free from faults, are (carefully)
    examined, it is a rare thing to find them without ignorance.

    504
    Weigh well the good of each, his failings closely scan,
    As these or those prevail, so estimate the man.
    Let (a king) consider (a mans) good qualities, as well as his faults, and then judge (of his character) by that which prevails.

    505
    Of greatness and of meanness too,
    The deeds of each are touchstone true.
    A mans deeds are the touchstone of his greatness and littleness.

    506
    Beware of trusting men who have no kith of kin;
    No bonds restrain such men, no shame deters from sin.
    Let (a king) avoid choosing men who have no relations; such men have no attachment, and thereforehave no fear of crime.

    507
    By fond affection led who trusts in men of unwise soul,
    Yields all his being up to follys blind control.
    To choose ignorant men, through partiality, is the height of folly.

    508
    Who trusts an untried stranger, brings disgrace,
    Remediless, on all his race.
    Sorrow that will not leave even his posterity will come upon him chooses a stranger whose character he has not known.

    509
    Trust no man whom you have not fully tried,
    When tested, in his prudence proved confide.
    Let (a king) choose no one without previous consideration; after he has made his choice, let him unhesitatingly
    select for each such duties as are appropriate.

    510
    Trust where you have not tried, doubt of a friend to feel,
    Once trusted, wounds inflict that nought can heal.
    To make choice of one who has not been examined, and to entertain doubts respecting one who has been chosen,
    will produce irremediable sorrow.

    2.1.14. Selection and Employment

    511
    Who good and evil scanning, ever makes the good his joy;
    Such man of virtuous mood should king employ.
    He should be employed (by a king), whose nature leads him to choose the good, after having weighed both the evil
    and the good in any undertaking.

    512
    Who swells the revenues, spreads plenty oer the land,
    Seeks out what hinders progress, his the workmans hand.
    Let him do (the kings) work who can enlarge the sources (of revenue), increase wealth and considerately
    prevent the accidents (which would destroy it).

    513
    A loyal love with wisdom, clearness, mind from avarice free;
    Who hath these four good gifts should ever trusted be.
    Let the choice (of a king) fall upon him who largely possesses these four things, love, knowledge,
    a clear mind and freedom from covetousness.

    514
    Even when tests of every kind are multiplied,
    Full many a man proves otherwise, by action tried!
    Even when (a king) has tried them in every possible way, there are many men who change, from the nature
    of the works (in which they may be employed).

    515
    No specious favrite should the kings commission bear,
    But he that knows, and work performs with patient care.
    (A kings) work can only be accomplished by a man of wisdom and patient endurance; it is not of a nature
    to be given to one from mere personal attachment.

    516
    Let king first ask, Who shall the deed perform? and What the deed?
    Of hour befitting both assured, let every work proceed.
    Let (a king) act, after having considered the agent (whom he is to employ), the deed (he desires to do),
    and the time which is suitable to it.

    517
    This man, this work shall thus work out, let thoughtful king command;
    Then leave the matter wholly in his servants hand.
    After having considered, this man can accomplish this, by these means, let (the king) leave with him the
    discharge of that duty.

    518
    As each mans special aptitude is known,
    Bid each man make that special work his own.
    Having considered what work a man is fit for, let (the king) employ him in that work.

    519
    Fortune deserts the king who ill can bear,
    Informal friendly ways of men his tolls who share.
    Prosperity will leave (the king) who doubts the friendship of the man who steadily labours in the discharge of his duties.

    520
    Let king search out his servants deeds each day;
    When these do right, the world goes rightly on its way.
    Let a king daily examine the conduct of his servants; if they do not act crookedly, the world will not act crookedly.

    2.1.15. Cherishing ones Kindred

    521
    When wealth is fled, old kindness still to show,
    Is kindly grace that only kinsmen know.
    Even when (a mans) property is all gone, relatives will act towards him with their accustomed (kindness).

    522
    The gift of kins unfailing love bestows
    Much gain of good, like flower that fadeless blows.
    If (a mans) relatives remain attached to him with unchanging love, it will be a source of ever-increasing wealth.

    523
    His joy of life who mingles not with kinsmen gathered round,
    Is lake where streams pour in, with no encircling bound.
    The wealth of one who does not mingle freely with his relatives, will be like the filling of water in a spacious tank that has no banks.

    524
    The profit gained by wealths increase,
    Is living compassed round by relatives in peace.
    To live surrounded by relatives, is the advantage to be derived from the acquisition of wealth.

    525
    Who knows the use of pleasant words, and liberal gifts can give,
    Connections, heaps of them, surrounding him shall live.
    He will be surrounded by numerous relatives who manifests generosity and affability.

    526
    Than one who gifts bestows and wrath restrains,
    Through the wide world none larger following gains.
    No one, in all the world, will have so many relatives (about him), as he who makes large gift, and does not give way to anger.

    527
    The crows conceal not, call their friends to come, then eat;
    Increase of good such worthy ones shall meet.
    The crows do not conceal (their prey), but will call out for others (to share with them) while they eat it;
    wealth will be with those who show a similar disposition (towards their relatives).

    528
    Where king regards not all alike, but each in his degree,
    Neath such discerning rule many dwell happily.
    Many relatives will live near a king, when they observe that he does not look on all alike, but that he
    looks on each man according to his merit.

    529
    Who once were his, and then forsook him, as before
    Will come around, when cause of disagreement is no more.
    Those who have been friends and have afterwards forsaken him, will return and join themselves (to him),
    when the cause of disagreement is not to be found in him.

    530
    Who causeless went away, then to return, for any cause, ask leave;
    The king should sift their motives well, consider, and receive!
    When one may have left him, and for some cause has returned to him, let the king fulfil the object (for which he
    has come back) and thoughtfully receive him again.

    2.1.16. Unforgetfulness

    531
    Tis greater ill, it rapture of oerweening gladness to the soul
    Bring self-forgetfulness than if transcendent wrath control.
    More evil than excessive anger, is forgetfulness which springs from the intoxication of great joy.

    532
    Perpetual, poverty is death to wisdom of the wise;
    When man forgets himself his glory dies!
    Forgetfulness will destroy fame, even as constant poverty destroys knowledge.

    533
    To self-oblivious men no praise; this rule
    Decisive wisdom sums of every school.
    Thoughtlessness will never acquire fame; and this tenet is upheld by all treatises in the world.

    534
    To cowards is no forts defence; een so
    The self-oblivious men no blessing know.
    Just as the coward has no defence (by whatever fortifications ha may be surrounded), so the thoughtless
    has no good (whatever advantages he may possess).

    535
    To him who nought foresees, recks not of anything,
    The after woe shall sure repentance bring.
    The thoughtless man, who provides not against the calamities that may happen, will afterwards repent for his fault.

    536
    Towards all unswerving, ever watchfulness of soul retain,
    Where this is found there is no greater gain.
    There is nothing comparable with the possession of unfailing thoughtfulness at all times; and towards all persons.

    537
    Though things are arduous deemed, theres nought may not be won,
    When work with minds unslumbering energy and thought is done.
    There is nothing too difficult to be accomplished, if a man set about it carefully, with unflinching endeavour.

    538
    Let things that merit praise thy watchful soul employ;
    Who these despise attain through sevenfold births no joy.
    Let (a man) observe and do these things which have been praised (by the wise); if he neglects and fails to
    perform them, for him there will be no (happiness) throughout the seven births.

    539
    Think on the men whom scornful mind hath brought to nought,
    When exultation overwhelms thy wildered thought.
    Let (a king) think of those who have been ruined by neglect, when his mind is elated with joy.

    540
    Tis easy what thou hast in mind to gain,
    If what thou hast in mind thy mind retain.
    It is easy for (one) to obtain whatever he may think of, if he can again think of it.

    2.1.17. The Right Sceptre

    541
    Search out, to no one favour show; with heart that justice loves
    Consult, then act; this is the rule that right approves.
    To examine into (the crimes which may be committed), to show no favour (to any one), to desire to act
    with impartiality towards all, and to inflict (such punishments) as may be wisely resolved on, constitute rectitude.

    542
    All earth looks up to heavn whence raindrops fall;
    All subjects look to king that ruleth all.
    When there is rain, the living creation thrives; and so when the king rules justly, his subjects thrive.

    543
    Learning and virtue of the sages spring,
    From all-controlling sceptre of the king.
    The sceptre of the king is the firm support of the Vedas of the Brahmin, and of all virtues therein described.

    544
    Whose heart embraces subjects all, lord over mighty land
    Who rules, the world his feet embracing stands.
    The world will constantly embrace the feet of the great king who rules over his subjects with love.

    545
    Where king, who righteous laws regards, the sceptre wields,
    There fall the showers, there rich abundance crowns the fields.
    Rain and plentiful crops will ever dwell together in the country of the king who sways his sceptre with justice.

    546
    Not lance gives kings the victory,
    But sceptre swayed with equity.
    It is not the javelin that gives victory, but the kings sceptre, if it do no injustice.

    547
    The king all the whole realm of earth protects;
    And justice guards the king who right respects.
    The king defends the whole world; and justice, when administered without defect, defends the king.

    548
    Hard o f access, nought searching out, with partial hand
    The king who rules, shall sink and perish from the land.
    The king who gives not facile audience (to those who approach him), and who does not examine and
    pass judgment (on their complaints), will perish in disgrace.

    549
    Abroad to guard, at home to punish, brings
    No just reproach; tis work assigned to kings.
    In guarding his subjects (against injury from others), and in preserving them himself; to punish crime
    is not a fault in a king, but a duty.

    550
    By punishment of death the cruel to restrain,
    Is as when farmer frees from weeds the tender grain.
    For a king to punish criminals with death, is like pulling up the weeds in the green corn.

    2.1.18. The Cruel Sceptre

    551
    Than one who plies the murderers trade, more cruel is the king
    Who all injustice works, his subjects harassing.
    The king who gives himself up to oppression and acts unjustly (towards his subjects) is more cruel than
    the man who leads the life of a murderer.

    552
    As Give the robber cries with lance uplift,
    So kings with sceptred hand implore a gift.
    The request (for money) of him who holds the sceptre is like the word of a highway robber who stands
    with a weapon in hand and says give up your wealth.

    553
    Who makes no daily search for wrongs, nor justly rules, that king
    Doth day by day his realm to ruin bring.
    The country of the king who does not daily examine into the wrongs done and distribute justice, will daily fall to ruin.

    554
    Whose rod from right deflects, who counsel doth refuse,
    At once his wealth and people utterly shall lose.
    The king, who, without reflecting (on its evil consequences), perverts justice, will lose at once both his
    wealth and his subjects.

    555
    His peoples tears of sorrow past endurance, are not they
    Sharp instruments to wear the monarchs wealth away?
    Will not the tears, shed by a people who cannot endure the oppression which they suffer (from their king),
    become a saw to waste away his wealth ?

    556
    To rulers rule stability is sceptre right;
    When this is not, quenched is the rulers light.
    Righteous government gives permanence to (the fame of) kings; without that their fame will have no endurance.

    557
    As lack of rain to thirsty lands beneath,
    Is lack of grace in kings to all that breathe.
    As is the world without rain, so live a people whose king is without kindness.

    558
    To poverty it adds a sharper sting,
    To live beneath the sway of unjust king.
    Property gives more sorrow than poverty, to those who live under the sceptre of a king without justice.

    559
    Where king from right deflecting, makes unrighteous gain,
    The seasons change, the clouds pour down no rain.
    If the king acts contrary to justice, rain will become unseasonable, and the heavens will withhold their showers.

    560
    Where guardian guardeth not, udder of kine grows dry,
    And Brahmans sacred lore will all forgotten lie.
    If the guardian (of the country) neglects to guard it, the produce of the cows will fail, and the men of six
    duties viz., the Brahmins will forget the vedas.

    2.1.19. Absence of Terrorism

    561
    Who punishes, investigation made in due degree,
    So as to stay advance of crime, a king is he.
    He is a king who having equitably examined (any injustice which has been brought to his notice), suitably
    punishes it, so that it may not be again committed.

    562
    For length of days with still increasing joys on Heavn who call,
    Should raise the rod with brow severe, but let it gently fall.
    Let the king, who desires that his prosperity may long remain, commence his preliminary enquires wi th strictness,
    and then punish with mildness.

    563
    Where subjects dread of cruel wrongs endure,
    Ruin to unjust king is swift and sure.
    The cruel-sceptred king, who acts so as to put his subjects in fear, will certainly and quickly come to ruin.

    564
    Ah! cruel is our king, where subjects sadly say,
    His age shall dwindle, swift his joy of life decay.
    The king who is spoken of as cruel will quickly perish; his life becoming shortened.

    565
    Whom subjects scarce may see, of harsh forbidding countenance;
    His ample wealth shall waste, blasted by demons glance.
    The great wealth of him who is difficult of access and possesses a sternness of countenance,
    is like that which has been obtained by a devil.

    566
    The tyrant, harsh in speach and hard of eye,
    His ample joy, swift fading, soon shall die.
    The abundant wealth of the king whose words are harsh and whose looks are void of kindness,
    will instantly perish instead of abiding long, with him.

    567
    Harsh words and punishments severe beyond the right,
    Are file that wears away the monarchs conquering might.
    Severe words and excessive punishments will be a file to waste away a kings power for destroying
    (his enemies).

    568
    Who leaves the work to those around, and thinks of it no more;
    If he in wrathful mood reprove, his prosperous days are oer!
    The prosperity of that king will waste away, who without reflecting (on his affairs himself), commits
    them to his ministers, and (when a failure occurs) gives way to anger, and rages against them.

    569
    Who builds no fort whence he may foe defy,
    In time of war shall fear and swiftly die.
    The king who has not provided himself with a place of defence, will in times of war be seized with fear
    and quickly perish.

    570
    Tyrants with fools their counsels share:
    Earth can no heavier burthen bear!
    The earth bears up no greater burden than ignorant men whom a cruel sceptre attaches to itself (as the ministers of its evil deeds).

    2.1.20. Benignity

    571
    Since true benignity, that grace exceeding great, resides
    In kingly souls, world in happy state abides.
    The world exists through that greatest ornament (of princes), a gracious demeanour.

    572
    The world goes on its wonted way, since grace benign is there;
    All other men are burthen for the earth to bear.
    The prosperity of the world springs from the kindliness, the existence of those who have no (kindliness) is a burden to the earth.

    573
    Where not accordant with the song, what use of sounding chords?
    What gain of eye that no benignant light affords?
    Of what avail is a song if it be inconsistent with harmony ? what is the use of eyes which possess no kindliness.

    574
    The seeming eye of face gives no expressive light,
    When not with duly meted kindness bright.
    Beyond appearing to be in the face, what good do they do, those eyes in which is no well-regulated kindness ?

    575
    Benignity is eyes adorning grace;
    Without it eyes are wounds disfiguring face.
    Kind looks are the ornaments of the eyes; without these they will be considered (by the wise) to be
    merely two sores.

    576
    Whose eyes neath brow infixed diffuse no ray
    Of grace; like tree in earth infixed are they.
    They resemble the trees of the earth, who although they have eyes, never look kindly (on others).

    577
    Eyeless are they whose eyes with no benignant lustre shine;
    Whove eyes can never lack the light of grace benign.
    Men without kind looks are men without eyes; those who (really) have eyes are also not devoid of kind looks.

    578
    Who can benignant smile, yet leave no work undone;
    By them as very own may all the earth be won.
    The world is theirs (kings) who are able to show kindness, without injury to their affairs, (administration of justice).

    579
    To smile on those that vex, with kindly face,
    Enduring long, is most excelling grace.
    Patiently to bear with, and show kindness to those who grieve us, is the most excellent of all dispositions.

    580
    They drink with smiling grace, though poison interfused they see,
    Who seek the praise of all-esteemed courtesy.
    Those who desire (to cultivate that degree of) urbanity which all shall love, even after swallowing the poison
    served to them by their friends, will be friendly with them.

    2.1.21. Detectives

    581
    These two: the code renowned and spies,
    In these let king confide as eyes.
    Let a king consider as his eyes these two things, a spy and a book (of laws) universally esteemed.

    582
    Each day, of every subject every deed,
    Tis duty of the king to learn with speed.
    It is the duty of a king to know quickly (by a spy) what all happens, daily, amongst all men.

    583
    By spies who spies, not weighing things they bring,
    Nothing can victory give to that unwary king.
    There is no way for a king to obtain conquests, who knows not the advantage of discoveries made by a spy.

    584
    His officers, his friends, his enemies,
    All these who watch are trusty spies.
    He is a spy who watches all men, to wit, those who are in the kings employment, his relatives, and his enemies.

    585
    Of unsuspected mien and all-unfearing eyes,
    Who let no secret out, are trusty spies.
    A spy is one who is able to assume an appearance which may create no suspicion (in the minds of others),
    who fears no mans face, and who never reveals (his purpose).

    586
    As monk or devotee, through every hindrance making way,
    A spy, whateer men do, must watchful mind display.
    He is a spy who, assuming the appearance of an ascetic, goes into (whatever place he wishes), examines
    into (all, that is needful), and never discovers himself, whatever may be done to him.

    587
    A spy must search each hidden matter out,
    And full report must render, free from doubt.
    A spy is one who is able to discover what is hidden and who retains no doubt concerning what he has known.

    588
    Spying by spies, the things they tell
    To test by other spies is well.
    Let not a king receive the information which a spy has discovered and made known to him, until he has
    examined it by another spy.

    589
    One spy must not another see: contrive it so;
    And things by three confirmed as truth you know.
    Let a king employ spies so that one may have no knowledge of the other; and when the information of three
    agrees together, let him receive it.

    590
    Reward not trusty spy in others sight,
    Or all the mystery will come to light.
    Let not a king publicly confer on a spy any marks of his favour; if he does, he will divulge his own secret.

    2.1.22. Energy

    591
    Tis energy gives men oer that they own a true control;
    They nothing own who own not energy of soul.
    Energy makes out the man of property; as for those who are destitute of it, do they (really) possess what they possess ?

    592
    The wealth of mind man owns a real worth imparts,
    Material wealth man owns endures not, utterly departs.
    The possession of (energy of) mind is true property; the possession of wealth passes away and abides not.

    593
    Lost is our wealth, they utter not this cry distressed,
    The men of firm concentred energy of soul possessed.
    They who are possessed of enduring energy will not trouble themselves, saying, we have lost our property.

    594
    The man of en ergy of soul inflexible,
    Good fortune seeks him out and comes a friend to dwell.
    Wealth will find its own way to the man of unfailing energy.

    595
    With rising flood the rising lotus flower its stem unwinds;
    The dignity of men is measured by their minds.
    The stalks of water-flowers are proportionate to the depth of water; so is mens greatness proportionate to their minds.

    596
    Whateer you ponder, let your aim be loftly still,
    Fate cannot hinder always, thwart you as it will.
    In all that a king thinks of, let him think of his greatness; and if it should be thrust from him (by fate), it
    will have the nature of not being thrust from him.

    597
    The men of lofty mind quail not in ruins fateful hour,
    The elephant retains his dignity mind arrows deadly shower.
    The strong minded will not faint, even when all is lost; the elephant stands firm, even when wounded by a shower of arrows.

    598
    The soulless man can never gain
    Th ennobling sense of power with men.
    Those who have no (greatness of) mind, will not acquire the joy of saying in the world, we have
    excercised liaberality.

    599
    Huge bulk of elephant with pointed tusk all armed,
    When tiger threatens shrinks away alarmed!
    Although the elephant has a large body, and a sharp tusk, yet it fears the attack of the tiger.

    600
    Firmness of soul in man is real excellance;
    Others are trees, their human form a mere pretence.
    Energy is mental wealth; those men who are destitute of it are only trees in the form of men.

    2.1.23. Unsluggishness

    601
    Of household dignity the lustre beaming bright,
    Flickers and dies when sluggish foulness dims its light.
    By the darkness, of idleness, the indestructible lamp of family (rank) will be extinguished.

    602
    Let indolence, the death of effort, die,
    If youd uphold your households dignity.
    Let those, who desire that their family may be illustrious, put away all idleness from their conduct.

    603
    Who fosters indolence within his breast, the silly elf!
    The house from which he springs shall perish ere himself.
    The (lustre of the) family of the ignorant man, who acts under the influence of destructive laziness
    will perish, even before he is dead.

    604
    His family decays, and faults unheeded thrive,
    Who, sunk in sloth, for noble objects doth not strive.
    Family (greatness) will be destroyed, and faults will increase, in those men who give way to laziness,
    and put forth no dignified exertions.

    605
    Delay, oblivion, sloth, and sleep: these four
    Are pleasure-boat to bear the doomed to ruins shore.
    Procrastination, forgetfulness, idleness, and sleep, these four things, form the vessel which is desired
    by those destined to destruction.

    606
    Though lords of earth unearned possessions gain,
    The slothful ones no yield of good obtain.
    It is a rare thing for the idle, even when possessed of the riches of kings who ruled over the whole earth,
    to derive any great benefit from it.

    607
    Who hug their sloth, nor noble works attempt,
    Shall bear reproofs and words of just contempt.
    Those who through idleness, and do not engage themselves in dignified exertion, will subject themselves
    to rebukes and reproaches.

    608
    If sloth a dwelling find mid noble family,
    Bondsmen to them that hate them shall they be.
    If idleness take up its abode in a king of high birth, it will make him a slave of his enemies.

    609
    Who changes slothful habits saves
    Himself from all that household rule depraves.
    When a man puts away idleness, the reproach which has come upon himself and his family will disappear.

    610
    The king whose life from sluggishness is ri d,
    Shall rule oer all by foot of mighty god bestrid.
    The king who never gives way to idleness will obtain entire possession of (the whole earth) passed over by
    him who measured (the worlds) with His foot.

    2.1.24. Manly Effort

    611
    Say not, Tis hard, in weak, desponding hour,
    For strenuous effort gives prevailing power.
    Yield not to the feebleness which says, this is too difficult to be done; labour will give the greatness
    (of mind) which is necessary (to do it).

    612
    In action be thou, ware of acts defeat;
    The world leaves those who work leave incomplete!
    Take care not to give up exertion in the midst of a work; the world will abandon those who abandon their unfinished work.

    613
    In strenuous effort doth reside
    The power of helping others: noble pride!
    The lustre of munificence will dwell only with the dignity of laboriousness or efforts.

    614
    Beneficent intent in men by whom no strenuous work is wrought,
    Like battle-axe in sexless beings hand availeth nought.
    The liberality of him, who does not labour, will fail, like the manliness of a hermaphrodite, who has a sword in its hand.

    615
    Whose heart delighteth not in pleasure, but in action finds delight,
    He wipes away his kinsmens grief and stands the pillar of their might.
    He who desires not pleasure, but desires labour, will be a pillar to sustain his relations, wiping away their sorrows.

    616
    Effort brings fortunes sure increase,
    Its absence brings to nothingness.
    Labour will produce wealth; idleness will bring poverty.

    617
    In sluggishness is seen misfortunes lurid form, the wise declare;
    Where man unslothful toils, she of the lotus flower is there!
    They say that the black Mudevi (the goddess of adversity) dwells with laziness, and the Latchmi (the
    goddess of prosperity) dwells with the labour of the industrious.

    618
    Tis no reproach unpropitious fate should ban;
    But not to do mans work is foul disgrace to man!
    Adverse fate is no disgrace to any one; to be without exertion and without knowing what should be known, is disgrace.

    619
    Though fate-divine should make your labour vain;
    Effort its labours sure reward will gain.
    Although it be said that, through fate, it cannot be attained, yet labour, with bodily exertion, will yield its reward.

    620
    Who strive with undismayed, unfaltering mind,
    At length shall leave opposing fate behind.
    They who labour on, without fear and without fainting will see even fate (put) behind their back.

    2.1.25. Hopefulness in Trouble

    621
    Smile, with patient, hopeful heart, in troublous hour;
    Meet and so vanquish grief; nothing hath equal power.
    If troubles come, laugh; there is nothing like that, to press upon and drive away sorrow.

    622
    Though sorrow, like a flood, comes rolling on,
    When wise mens mind regards it,- it is gone.
    A flood of troubles will be overcome by the (courageous) thought which the minds of the wise will entertain,
    even in sorrow.

    623
    Who griefs confront with meek, ungrieving heart,
    From them griefs, put to grief, depart.
    They give sorrow to sorrow, who in sorrow do not suffer sorrow.

    624
    Like bullock struggle on through each obstructed way;
    From such an one will troubles, troubled, roll away.
    Troubles will vanish (i.e., will be troubled) before the man who (struggles against difficulties) as
    a buffalo (drawing a cart) through deep mire.

    625
    When griefs press on, but fail to crush the patient heart,
    Then griefs defeated, put to grief, depart.
    The troubles of that man will be troubled (and disappear) who, however thickly they may come upon him ,
    does not abandon (his purpose).

    626
    Who boasted not of wealth, nor gave it all their heart,
    Will not bemoan the loss, when prosperous days depart.
    Will those men ever cry out in sorrow, we are destitute who, (in their prosperity), give not way to
    (undue desire) to keep their wealth.

    627
    Mans frame is sorrows target, the noble mind reflects,
    Nor meets with troubled mind the sorrows it expects.
    The great will not regard trouble as trouble, knowing that the body is the butt of trouble.

    628
    He seeks not joy, to sorrow man is born, he knows;
    Such man will walk unharmed by touch of human woes.
    That man never experiences sorrow, who does not seek for pleasure, and who considers distress
    to be natural (to man).

    629
    Mid joys he yields not heart to joys control.
    Mid sorrows, sorrow cannot touch his soul.
    He does not suffer sorrow, in sorrow who does not look for pleasure in pleasure.

    630
    Who pain as pleasure takes, he shall acquire
    The bliss to which his foes in vain aspire.
    The elevation, which even his enemies will esteem, will be gained by him, who regards pain as pleasure.
    2.2 Ministers of State
    2.2.1. The Office of Minister of state

    631
    A minister is he who grasps, with wisdom large,
    Means, time, works mode, and functions rare he must discharge.
    The minister is one who can make an excellent choice of means, time, manner of execution,
    and the difficult undertaking (itself).

    632
    A minister must greatness own of guardian power, determined mind,
    Learnd wisdom, manly effort with the former five combined.
    The minister is one who in addition to the aforesaid five things excels in the possession of firmness,
    protection of subjects, clearness by learning, and perseverance.

    633
    A minister is he whose power can foes divide,
    Attach more firmly friends, of severed ones can heal the breaches wide.
    The minister is one who can effect discord (among foes), maintain the good-will of his friends and restore
    to friendship those who have seceded (from him).

    634
    A minister has power to see the methods help afford,
    To ponder long, then utter calm conclusive word.
    The minister is one who is able to comprehend (the whole nature of an undertaking), execute it in the best
    manner possible, and offer assuring advice (in time of necessity).

    635
    The man who virtue knows, has use of wise and pleasant words.
    With plans for every season apt, in counsel aid affords.
    He is the best helper (of the king) who understanding the duties, of the latter, is by his special learning, able
    to tender the fullest advice, and at all times conversant with the best method (of
    performing actions).

    636
    When native subtilty combines with sound scholastic lore,
    Tis subtilty surpassing all, which nothing stands before.
    What (contrivances) are there so acute as to resist those who possess natural acuteness in addition to learning ?.

    637
    Though knowing all that books can teach, tis truest tact
    To follow common sense of men in act.
    Though you are acquainted with the (theoretical) methods (of performing an act), understand the ways
    of the world and act accordingly.

    638
    Tis duty of the man in place aloud to say
    The very truth, though unwise king may cast his words away.
    Although the king be utterly ignorant, it is the duty of the minister to give (him) sound advice.

    639
    A minister who by kings side plots evil things
    Worse woes than countless foemen brings.
    Far better are seventy crores of enemies (for a king) than a minister at his side who intends (his) ruin.

    640
    For gain of end desired just counsel nought avails
    To minister, when tact in execution fails.
    Those ministers who are destitute of (executive) ability will fail to carry out their projects, although they may
    have contrived aright.

    2.2.2. Power in Speech

    641
    A tongue that rightly speaks the right is greatest gain,
    It stands alone midst goodly things that men obtain.
    The possession of that goodness which is called the goodness of speech is (even to others) better than any
    other goodness.

    642
    Since gain and loss in life on speech depend,
    From careless slip in speech thyself defend.
    Since (both) wealth and evil result from (their) speech, ministers should most carefully guard themselves
    against faultiness therein.

    643
    Tis speech that spell-bound holds the listening ear,
    While those who have not heard desire to hear.
    The (ministers) speech is that which seeks (to express) elements as bind his friends (to himself) and is so
    delivered as to make even his enemies desire (his friendship).

    644
    Speak words adapted well to various hearers state;
    No higher virtue lives, no gain more surely great.
    Understand the qualities (of your hearers) and (then) make your speech; for superior to it, there is neither virtue nor wealth.

    645
    Speak out your speech, when once tis past dispute
    That none can utter speech that shall your speech refute.
    Deliver your speech, after assuring yourself that no counter speech can defeat your own.

    646
    Charming each hearers ear, of others words to seize the sense,
    Is method wise of men of spotless excellence.
    It is the opinion of those who are free from defects in diplomacy that the minister should speak so as to make
    his hearers desire (to hear more) and grasp the meaning of what he hears himself.

    647
    Mighty in word, of unforgetful mind, of fearless speech,
    Tis hard for hostile power such man to overreach.
    It is impossible for any one to conquer him by intrique who possesses power of speech, and is neither faulty nor timid.

    648
    Swiftly the listening world will gather round,
    When men of mighty speech the weighty theme propound.
    If there be those who can speak on various subjects in their proper order and in a pleasing manner, the world
    would readily accept them.

    649
    Who have not skill ten faultless words to utter plain,
    Their tongues will itch with thousand words mans ears to pain.
    They will desire to utter many words, who do not know how to speak a few faultless ones.

    650
    Like scentless flower in blooming garland bound
    Are men who cant their lore acquired to others ears expound.
    Those who are unable to set forth their acquirements (before others) are like flowers blossoming in a cluster
    and yet without fragrance.

    2.2.3. Purity in Action

    651
    The good external help confers is worldly gain;
    By action good men every needed gift obtain.
    The efficacy of support will yield (only) wealth; (but) the efficacy of action will yield all that is desired.

    652
    From action evermore thyself restrain
    Of glory and of good that yields no gain.
    Ministers should at all times avoid acts which, in addition to fame, yield no benefit (for the future).

    653
    Who tell themselves that nobler things shall yet be won
    All deeds that dim the light of glory must they shun.
    Those who say, we will become (better) should avoid the performance of acts that would destroy (their fame).

    654
    Though troubles press, no shameful deed they do,
    Whose eyes the ever-during vision view.
    Those who have infallible judgement though threatened with peril will not do acts which have brought disgrace (on former ministers).

    655
    Do nought that soul repent ing must deplore,
    If thou hast sinned, tis well if thou dost sin no more.
    Let a minister never do acts of which he would have to grieve saying, what is this I have done; (but) should
    he do (them), it were good that he grieved not.

    656
    Though her that bore thee hungring thou behold, no deed
    Do thou, that men of perfect soul have crime decreed.
    Though a minister may see his mother starve; let him do not act which the wise would (treat with contempt).

    657
    Than store of wealth guilt-laden souls obtain,
    The sorest poverty of perfect soul is richer gain.
    Far more excellent is the extreme poverty of the wise than wealth obtained by heaping up of sinful deeds.

    658
    To those who hate reproof and do forbidden thing.
    What prospers now, in after days shall anguish bring.
    The actions of those, who have not desisted from doing deeds forbidden (by the great), will, even if they succeed,
    cause them sorrow.

    659
    Whats gained through tears with tears shall go;
    From loss good deeds entail harvests of blessings grow.
    All that has been obtained with tears (to the victim) will depart with tears (to himself); but what has been by fair
    means; though with loss at first, will afterwards yield fruit.

    660
    In pot of clay unburnt he water pours and would retain,
    Who seeks by wrong the realm in wealth and safety to maintain.
    (For a minister) to protect (his king) with wealth obtained by foul means is like preserving a vessel of wet clay by
    filling it with water.

    2.2.4. Power in Action

    661
    What men call power in action know for power of mind
    Externe to man all other aids you find.
    Firmness in action is (simply) ones firmness of mind; all other (abilities) are not of this nature.

    662
    Each hindrance shun, unyielding onward press, If obstacle be there,
    These two define your way, so those that search out truth declare.
    Not to perform a ruinous act, and not to be discouraged by the ruinous termination of an act, are the two
    maxims which, the wise say, from the principles of those who have investigated the subject.

    663
    Mans fitting work is known but by success achieved;
    In midst the plan revealed brings ruin neer to be retrieved.
    So to perform an act as to publish it (only) at its termination is (true) manliness; for to announce it beforehand,
    will cause irremediable sorrow.

    664
    Easy to every man the speech that shows the way;
    Hard thing to shape ones life by words they say!
    To say (how an act is to be performed) is (indeed) easy for any one; but far difficult it is to do according to
    what has been said.

    665
    The power in act of men renowned and great,
    With king acceptance finds and fame through all the state.
    The firmness in action of those who have become great by the excellence (of their counsel) will, by attaining its
    fulfilment in the person of the king, be esteemed (by all).

    666
    Whateer men think, evn as they think, may men obtain,
    If those who think can steadfastness of will retain.
    If those who have planned (an undertaking) possess firmness (in executing it) they will obtain what they have
    desired even as they have desired it.

    667
    Despise not men of modest bearing; Look not at form, but what men are:
    For some there live, high functions sharing, Like linch-pin of the mighty car!
    Let none be despised for (their) size; (for) the world has those who resemble the linch-pin of the big rolling car.

    668
    What clearly eye discerns as right, with steadfast will,
    And mind unslumbering, that should man fulfil.
    An act that has been firmly resolved on must be as firmly carried out without delay.

    669
    Though toil and trouble face thee, firm resolve hold fast,
    And do the deeds that pleasure yield at last.
    Though it should cause increasing sorrow (at the outset), do with firmness the act that yield bliss (in the end).

    670
    The world desires not men of every power possessed,
    Who power in act desire not,- crown of all the rest.
    The great will not esteem those who esteem not firmness of action, whatever other abilities the latter may possess.

    2.2.5. The Envoy

    681
    Benevolence high birth, the courtesy kings love:-
    These qualities the envoy of a king approve.
    The qualification of an ambassador are affection (for his relations) a fitting birth, and the possession of
    attributes pleasing to royalty.

    682
    Love, knowledge, power of chosen words, three things,
    Should he possess who speaks the words of kings.
    Love (to his sovereign), knowledge (of his affairs), and a discriminating power of speech (before other sovereigns)
    are the three sine qua non qualifications of an ambassador.

    683
    Mighty in lore amongst the learned must he be,
    Midst javlin-bearing kings who speaks the words of victory.
    To be powerful in politics among those who are learned (in ethics) is the character of him who speaks to lance-
    bearing kings on matters of triumph (to his own sovereign).

    684
    Sense, goodly grace, and knowledge exquisite.
    Who hath these three for envoys task is fit.
    He may go on a mission (to foreign rulers) who has combined in him all these three. viz., (natural) sense, an attractive
    bearing and well-tried learning.

    685
    In terms concise, avoiding wrathful speech, who utters pleasant word,
    An envoy he who gains advantage for his lord.
    He is an ambassador who (in the presence of foreign rulers) speaks briefly, avoids harshness, talks so as to make
    them smile, and thus brings good (to his own sovereign).

    686
    An envoy meet is he, well-learned, of fearless eye
    Who speaks right home, prepared for each emergency.
    He is an ambassador who having studied (politics) talks impressively, is not afraid of angry looks, and knows
    (to employ) the art suited to the time.

    687
    He is the best who knows whats due, the time considered well,
    The place selects, then ponders long ere he his errand tell.
    He is chief (among ambassadors) who understands the proper decorum (before foreign princes), seeks the (proper)
    occasion, knows the (most suitable) place, and delivers his message after (due) consideration.

    688
    Integrity, resources, soul determined, truthfulness.
    Who rightly speaks his message must these marks possess.
    The qualifications of him who faithfully delivers his (sovereigns) message are purity, the support (of foreign ministers),
    and boldness, with truthfulness in addition to the (aforesaid) three.

    689
    His faltering lips must utter no unworthy thing,
    Who stands, with steady eye, to speak the mandates of his king.
    He alone is fit to communicate (his sovereigns) reply, who possesses the firmness not to utter even inadvertently
    what may reflect discredit (on the latter).

    690
    Death to the faithful one his embassy may bring;
    To envoy gains assured advantage for his king.
    He is the ambassador who fearlessly seeks his sovereigns good though it should cost him his life (to deliver his message).

    2.2.6. Conduct in the Presence of the King

    691
    Who warm them at the fire draw not too near, nor keep too much aloof;
    Thus let them act who dwell beneath of warlike kings the palace-roof.
    Ministers who serve under fickle-minded monarchs should, like those who warm themselves at the fire, be neither (too) far, nor (too) near.

    692
    To those who prize not state that kings are wont to prize,
    The king himself abundant wealth supplies. < br> For ministers not to cover the things desired by their kings
    will through the kings themselves yield them everlasting wealth.

    693
    Who would walk warily, let him of greater faults beware;
    To clear suspicions once aroused is an achievement rare.
    Ministers who would save themselves should avoid (the commission of) serious errors for if the kings suspicion is
    once roused, no one can remove it.

    694
    All whispered words and interchange of smiles repress,
    In presence of the men who kingly power possess.
    While in the presence of the sovereign, ministers should neither whisper to nor smile at others.

    695
    Seek not, ask not, the secret of the king to hear;
    But if he lets the matter forth, give ear!
    (When the king is engaged) in secret counsel (with others), ministers should neither over-hear anything whatever nor
    pry into it with inquisitive questions, but (wait to) listen when it is divulged (by the king himself).

    696
    Knowing the signs, waiting for fitting time, with courteous care,
    Things not displeasing, needful things, declare.
    Knowing the (kings disposition and seeking the right time, (the minister) should in a pleasing manner suggest things
    such as are desirable and not disagreeable.

    697
    Speak pleasant things, but never utter idle word;
    Not though by monarchs ears with pleasure heard.
    Ministers should (always) give agreeable advice but on no occasion recommend useless actions, though requested (to do so).

    698
    Say not, Hes young, my kinsman, despising thus your king;
    But reverence the glory kingly state doth bring.
    Ministers should behave in accordance with the (Divine) light in the person of kings and not despise them saying,
    He is our junior (in age) and connected with our family!.

    699
    Weve gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do,
    So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.
    Those whose judgement is firm will not do what is disagreeable (to the sovereign) saying (within themselves)
    We are esteemed by the king.

    700
    Who think Were ancient friends and do unseemly things;
    To these familiarity sure ruin brings.
    The (foolish) claim with which a minister does unbecoming acts because of his (long) familiarity (with the king)
    will ensure his ruin.

    2.2.7. The Knowledge of Indications

    701
    Who knows the sign, and reads unuttered thought, the gem is he,
    Of earth round traversed by the changeless sea.
    The minister who by looking (at the king) understands his mind without being told (of it), will be a perpetual ornament
    to the world which is surrounded by a never-drying sea.

    702
    Undoubting, who the minds of men can scan,
    As deity regard that gifted man.
    He is to be esteemed a god who is able to ascertain without a doubt what is within (ones mind).

    703
    Who by the sign the signs interprets plain,
    Give any member up his aid to gain.
    The king should ever give whatever (is asked) of his belongings and secure him who, by the indications (of his own mind)
    is able to read those of another.

    704
    Who reads whats shown by signs, though words unspoken be,
    In form may seem as other men, in function nobler far is he.
    Those who understand ones thoughts without being informed (thereof) and those who do not, may (indeed) resemble
    one another bodily; still are they different (mentally).

    705
    By sign who knows not sings to comprehend, what gain,
    Mid all his members, from his eyes does he obtain?
    Of what use are the eyes amongst ones members, if they cannot by their own indications dive those of another ?.

    706
    As forms around in crystal mirrored clear we find,
    The face will show whats throbbing in the mind.
    As the mirror reflects what is near so does the face show what is uppermost in the mind.

    707
    Than speaking countenance hath aught more prescient skill?
    Rejoice or burn with rage, tis the first herald still!
    Is there anything so full of knowledge as the face ? (No.) it precedes the mind, whether (the latter is) pleased or vexed.

    708
    To see the face is quite enough, in presence brought,
    When men can look within and know the lurking thought.
    If the king gets those who by looking into his mind can understand (and remove) what has occurred (to him) it is enough
    that he stand looking at their face.

    709
    The eye speaks out the hate or friendly soul of man;
    To those who know the eyes swift varying moods to scan.
    If a king gets ministers who can read the movements of the eye, the eyes (of foreign kings) will (themselves)
    reveal (to him) their hatred or friendship.

    710
    The men of keen discerning soul no other test apply
    (When you their secret ask) than mans revealing eye.
    The measuring-rod of those (ministers) who say we are acute will on inquiry be found to be their (own)
    eyes and nothing else.

    2.2.8. The Knowledge of the Council Chamber

    711
    Men pure in heart, who know of words the varied force,
    Should to their audience known adapt their well-arranged discourse.
    Let the pure who know the arrangement of words speak with deliberation after ascertaining (the nature of) the
    court (then assembled).

    712
    Good men to whom the arts of eloquence are known,
    Should seek occasion meet, and say what well theyve made their own.
    Let the good who know the uses of words speak with a clear knowledge after ascertaining the time
    (suited to the court).

    713
    Unversed in councils, who essays to speak.
    Knows not the way of suasive words,- and all is weak.
    Those who undertake to speak without knowing the (nature of the) court are ignorant of the quality of words as well
    as devoid of the power (of learning).

    714
    Before the bright ones shine as doth the light!
    Before the dull ones be as purest stucco white!
    Ministers should be lights in the assembly of the enlightned, but assume the pure whiteness of mortar (ignorance) in that of fools.

    715
    Midst all good things the best is modest grace,
    That speaks not first before the elders face.
    The modesty by which one does not rush forward and speak in (an assembly of) superiors is the best among all (ones) good qualities.

    716
    As in the way one tottering falls, is slip before
    The men whose minds are filled with varied lore.
    (For a minister) to blunder in the presence of those who have acquired a vast store of learning and know (the value thereof)
    is like a good man stumbling (and falling away) from the path (of virtue).

    717
    The learning of the learned sage shines bright
    To those whose faultless skill can value it aright.
    The learning of those who have read and understood (much) will shine in the assembly of those who faultlessly
    examine (the nature of) words.

    718
    To speak where understanding hearers you obtain,
    Is sprinkling water on the fields of growing grain!
    Lecturing to those who have the ability to understand (for themselves) is like watering a bed of plants that are
    growing (of themselves).

    719
    In councils of the good, who speak good things with penetrating power,
    In councils of the mean, let them say nought, een in oblivious hour.
    Those who are able to speak good things impressively in an assembly of the good should not even forgetfully
    speak them in that of the low

    720
    Ambrosia in the sewer spilt, is word
    Spoken in presence of the alien herd.
    To utter (a good word) in the assembly of those who are of inferior rank is like dropping nectar on the ground.

    2.2.9. Not to dread the Council

    721
    Men, pure in heart, who know of words the varied force,
    The mighty councils moods discern, nor fail in their discourse.
    The pure who know the classification of words having first ascertained the nature (of the court) will not (through fear)
    falter in their speech before the powerful body.

    722
    Who what theyve learned, in penetrating words heve learned to say,
    Before the learnd among the learnd most learnd are they.
    Those who can agreeably set forth their acquirements before the learned will be regarded as the most learned
    among the learned.

    723
    Many encountering death in face of foe will hold their ground;
    Who speak undaunted in the council hall are rarely found.
    Many indeed may (fearlessly) die in the presence of (their) foes; (but) few are those who are fearless in the
    assembly (of the learned).

    724
    What you have learned, in penetrating words speak out before
    The learnd; but learn what men more learnd can teach you more.
    (Ministers) should agreeably set forth their acquirements before the learned and acquire more (knowledge) from
    their superiors (in learning).

    725
    By rule, to dialectic art your mind apply,
    That in the council fearless you may make an apt reply.
    In order to reply fearlessly before a foreign court, (ministers) should learn logic according to the rules (of grammar).

    726
    To those who lack the heros eye what can the sword avail?
    Or science what, to those before the council keen who quail?
    What have they to do with a sword who are not valiant, or they with learning who are afraid of an intelligent assembly ?

    727
    As shining sword before the foe which sexless being bears,
    Is science learned by him the councils face who fears.
    The learning of him who is diffident before an assembly is like the shining sword of an hermaphrodite in the presence of his foes.

    728
    Though many things theyve learned, yet useless are they all,
    To man who cannot well and strongly speak in council hall.
    Those who cannot agreeably speak good things before a good assembly are indeed unprofitable persons inspite of
    all their various acquirements.

    729
    Who, though theyve learned, before the council of the good men quake,
    Than men unlearnd a lower place must take.
    They who, though they have learned and understood, are yet afraid of the assembly of the good, are said to be
    inferior (even) to the illiterate.

    730
    Who what theyve learned, in penetrating words know not to say,
    The council fearing, though they live, as dead are they.
    Those who through fear of the assembly are unable to set forth their learning in an interesting manner, though alive,
    are yet like the dead.

    2.3 The Essentials of a State
    2.3.1 The Land

    731
    Where spreads fertility unfailing, where resides a band,
    Of virtuous men, and those of ample wealth, call that a land
    A kingdom is that in which (those who carry on) a complete cultivation, virtuous persons, and merchants
    with inexhaustible wealth, dwell together.

    732
    That is a land which men desire for wealths abundant share,
    Yielding rich increase, where calamities are rare.
    A kingdom is that which is desire for its immense wealth, and which grows greatly in prosperity,
    being free from destructive causes.

    733
    When burthens press, it bears; Yet, With unfailing hand
    To king due tribute pays: that is the land
    A kingdom is that which can bear any burden that may be pressed on it (from adjoining kingdoms) and
    (yet) pay the full tribute to its sovereign.

    734
    That is a land whose peaceful anna ls know,
    Nor famine fierce, nor wasting plague, nor ravage of the foe.
    A kingdom is that which continues to be free from excessive starvation, irremediable epidemics, and destructive foes.

    735
    From factions free, and desolating civil strife, and band
    Of lurking murderers that king afflict, that is the land.
    A kingdom is that which is without various (irregular) associations, destructive internal enemies, and murderous
    savages who (sometimes) harass the sovereign.

    736
    Chief of all lands is that, where nought disturbs its peace;
    Or, if invaders come, still yields its rich increase.
    The learned say that the best kingdom is that which knows no evil (from its foes), and, if injured (at all), suffers
    no diminution in its fruitfulness.

    737
    Waters from rains and springs, a mountain near, and waters thence;
    These make a land, with fortress sure defence.
    The constituents of a kingdom are the two waters (from above and below), well situated hills and an
    undestructible fort.

    738
    A countrys jewels are these five: unfailing health,
    Fertility, and joy, a sure defence, and wealth.
    Freedom from epidemics, wealth, produce, happiness and protection (to subjects); these five, the learned, say,
    are the ornaments of a kingdom.

    739
    That is a land that yields increase unsought,
    That is no land whose gifts with toil are bought.
    The learned say that those are kingdom whose wealth is not laboured for, and those not, whose wealth is only obtained through labour.

    740
    Though blest with all these varied gifts increase,
    A land gains nought that is not with its king at peace.
    Although in possession of all the above mentioned excellences, these are indeed of no use to a country,
    in the absence of harmony between the sovereign and the sujects.

    2.3.2. The Fortification

    741
    A fort is wealth to those who act against their foes;
    Is wealth to them who, fearing, guard themselves from woes.
    A fort is an object of importance to those who march (against their foes) as well as to those who through fear
    (of pursuers) would seek it for shelter.

    742
    A fort is that which owns fount of waters crystal clear,
    An open space, a hill, and shade of beauteous forest near.
    A fort is that which has everlasting water, plains, mountains and cool shady forests.

    743
    Height, breadth, strength, difficult access:
    Science declares a fort must these possess.
    The learned say that a fortress is an enclosure having these four (qualities) viz., height, breadth, strength and inaccessibility.

    744
    A fort must need but slight defence, yet ample be,
    Defying all the foemans energy.
    A fort is that which has an extensive space within, but only small places to be guarded, and such as can
    destroy the courage of besieging foes.

    745
    Impregnable, containing ample stores of food,
    A fort for those within, must be a warlike station good.
    A fort is that which cannot be captured, which abounds in suitable provisions, and affords a position of
    easy defence to its inmates.

    746
    A fort, with all munitions amply stored,
    In time of need should good reserves afford.
    A fort is that which has all (needful) things, and excellent heroes that can help it against destruction (by foes).

    747
    A fort should be impregnable to foes who gird it round,
    Or aim there darts from far, or mine beneath the ground.
    A fort is that which cannot be captured by blockading, assaulting, or undermining it.

    748
    Howeer the circling foe may strive access to win,
    A fort should give the victory to those who guard within.
    That is a fort whose inmates are able to overcome without losing their ground, even abler men who have besieged it.

    749
    At outset of the strife a fort should foes dismay;
    And greatness gain by deeds in every glorious day.
    A fort is that which derives excellence from the stratagems made (by its inmates) to defeat their enemies in the battlefield.

    750
    Howeer majestic castled walls may rise,
    To craven souls no fortress strength supplies.
    Although a fort may possess all (the above-said) excellence, it is, as it were without these, if its inmates
    possess not the excellence of action.

    2.3.3. Way of Accumulating Wealth

    751
    Nothing exists save wealth, that can
    Change man of nought to worthy man.
    Besides wealth there is nothing that can change people of no importance into those of (some) importance.

    752
    Those who have nought all will despise;
    All raise the wealthy to the skies.
    All despise the poor; (but) all praise the rich.

    753
    Wealth, the lamp unfailing, speeds to every land,
    Dispersing darkness at its lords command.
    The imperishable light of wealth goes into regions desired (by its owner) and destroys the darkness (of enmity therein).

    754
    Their wealth, who blameless means can use aright,
    Is source of virtue and of choice delight.
    The wealth acquired with a knowledge of the proper means and without foul practices will yield virtue and happiness.

    755
    Wealth gained by loss of love and grace,
    Let man cast off from his embrace.
    (Kings) should rather avoid than seek the accumulation of wealth which does not flow in with mercy and love.

    756
    Wealth that falls to him as heir, wealth from the kingdoms dues,
    The spoils of slaughtered foes; these are the royal revenues.
    Unclaimed wealth, wealth acquired by taxes, and wealth (got) by conquest of foes are (all) the wealth of the king.

    757
    Tis love that kindliness as offspring bears:
    And wealth as bounteous nurse the infant rears.
    The child mercy which is borne by love grows under the care of the rich nurse of wealth.

    758
    As one to view the strife of elephants who takes his stand,
    On hill hes climbed, is he who works with money in his hand.
    An undertaking of one who has wealth in ones hands is like viewing an elephant-fight from a hill-top.

    759
    Make money! Foemans insolence oergrown
    To lop away no keener steel is known.
    Accumulate wealth; it will destroy the arrogance of (your) foes; there is no weapon sharper than it.

    760
    Who plenteous store of glorious wealth have gained,
    By them the other two are easily obtained.
    To those who have honestly acquired an abundance of riches, the other two, (virtue and pleasure) are things easy (of acquisition).

    2.3.4. The Excellence of an Army

    761
    A conquering host, complete in all its limbs, that fears no wound,
    Mid treasures of the king is chiefest found.
    The army which is complete in (its) parts and conquers without fear of wounds is the chief wealth of the king.

    762
    In adverse hour, to face undaunted might of conquering foe,
    Is bravery that only veteran host can show.
    Ancient army can alone have the valour which makes it stand by its king at the time of defeat, fearless of wounds
    and unmindful of its reduced strength.

    763
    Though, like the sea, the angry mice send forth their battle cry;
    What then? The dragon breathes upon them, and they die!
    What if (a host of) hostile rats roar like the sea ? They will perish at the mere breath of the cobra.

    764
    That is a host, by no defeats, by no desertions shamed,
    For old hereditary courage famed.
    That indeed is an army which has stood firm of old without suffering destruction or deserting (to the enemy).

    765
    That is a host that joins its ranks, and mightily withstands,
    Though death with sudden wrath should fall upon its bands.
    That indeed is an army which is capable of offering a united resistance, even if Yama advances against it with fury.

    766
    Valour with honour, sure advance in glorys path, with confidence;
    To warlike host these four are sure defence.
    Valour, honour, following in the excellent-footsteps (of its predecessors) and trust-worthiness; these four alone
    constitute the safeguard of an army.

    767
    A valiant army bears the onslaught, onward goes,
    Well taught with marshalled ranks to meet their coming foes.
    That is an army which knowing the art of warding off an impending struggle, can bear against the dust-van (of a hostile force).

    768
    Though not in war offensive or defensive skilled;
    An army gains applause when well equipped and drilled.
    Though destitute of courage to fight and strength (to endure), an army may yet gain renown by the splendour of its appearance.

    769
    Where weakness, clinging fear and poverty
    Are not, the host will gain the victory.
    An army can triumph (over its foes) if it is free from diminution; irremediable aversion and poverty.

    770
    Though men abound, all ready for the war,
    No army is where no fit leaders are.
    Though an army may contain a large number of permanent soldiers, it cannot last if it has no generals.

    2.3.5. Military Spirit

    771
    Ye foes! stand not before my lord! for many a one
    Who did my lord withstand, now stands in stone!
    O my foes, stand not before my leader; (for) many are those who did so but afterwards stood (in the shape of) statues.

    772
    Who aims at elephant, though dart should fail, has greater praise.
    Than he who woodland hare with winged arrow slays.
    It is more pleasant to hold the dart that has missed an elephant than that which has hit hare in the forest.

    773
    Fierceness in hour of strife heroic greatness shows;
    Its edge is kindness to our suffering foes.
    The learned say that fierceness (incontest with a foe) is indeed great valour; but to become a benefactor in case of
    accident (to a foe) is the extreme (limit) of that valour.

    774
    At elephant he hurls the dart in hand; for weapon pressed,
    He laughs and plucks the javelin from his wounded breast.
    The hero who after casting the lance in his hand on an elephant, comes (in search of another) will pluck the one (
    that sticks) in his body and laugh (exultingly).

    775
    To hero fearless must it not defeat appear,
    If he but wink his eye when foemen hurls his spear.
    Is it not a defeat to the valiant to wink and destroy their ferocious look when a lance in cast at them (by their foe) ?

    776
    The heroes, counting up their days, set down as vain
    Each day when they no glorious wound sustain.
    The hero will reckon among wasted days all those on which he had not received severe wounds.

    777
    Who seek for world-wide fame, regardless of their life,
    The glorious clasp adorns, sign of heroic strife.
    The fastening of ankle-ring by those who disire a world-wide renown and not (the safety of) their lives is like
    adorning (themselves).

    778
    Fearless they rush whereer the tide of battle rolls;
    The kings reproof damps not the ardour of their eager souls.
    The heroes who are not afraid of losing their life in a contest will not cool their ardour, even if the king prohibits (their fighting).

    779
    Who says they err, and visits them scorn,
    Who die and faithful guard the vow theyve sworn?
    Who would reproach with failure those who seal their oath with their death ?

    780
    If monarchs eyes oerflow with tears for hero slain,
    Who wou ld not beg such boon of glorious death to gain?
    If (heroes) can so die as to fill with tears the eyes of their rulers, such a death deserves to be obtained even by begging.

    2.3.6. Friendship

    781
    What so hard for men to gain as friendship true?
    What so sure defence gainst all that foe can do?
    What things are there so difficult to acquire as friendship ? What guards are there so difficult to break through by the efforts (of ones foes) ?

    782
    Friendship with men fulfilled of good Waxes like the crescent moon;
    Friendship with men of foolish mood, Like the full orb, waneth soon.
    The friendship of the wise waxes like the new moon; (but) that of fools wanes like the full moon.

    783
    Learned scroll the more you ponder, Sweeter grows the mental food;
    So the heart by use grows fonder, Bound in friendship with the good.
    Like learning, the friendship of the noble, the more it is cultivated, the more delightful does it become.

    784
    Nor for laughter only friendship all the pleasant day,
    But for strokes of sharp reproving, when from right you stray.
    Friendship is to be practised not for the purpose of laughing but for that of being beforehand in giving one another
    sharp rebukes in case of transgression.

    785
    Not association constant, not affections token bind;
    Tis the unison of feeling friends unites of kindred mind.
    Living together and holding frequent intercourse are not necessary (for friendship); (mutual) understanding
    can alone create a claim for it.

    786
    Not the faces smile of welcome shows the friend sincere,
    But the hearts rejoicing gladness when the friend is near.
    The love that dwells (merely in the smiles of the face is not friendship; (but) that which dwells deep in the smiles
    of the heart is true friendship.

    787
    Friendship from ruin saves, in way of virtue keeps;
    In troublous time, it weeps with him who weeps.
    (True) friendship turns aside from evil (ways) makes (him) walk in the (good) way, and, in case of loss if shares his sorrow (with him).

    788
    As hand of him whose vesture slips away,
    Friendship at once the coming grief will stay.
    (True) friendship hastens to the rescue of the afflicted (as readily) as the hand of one whose garment
    is loosened (before an assembly).

    789
    And where is friendships royal seat? In stable mind,
    Where friend in every time of need support may find.
    Friendship may be said to be on its throne when it possesses the power of supporting one at all times
    and under all circumstances, (in the practice or virtue and wealth).

    790
    Mean is the friendship that men blazon forth,
    Hes thus to me and such to him my worth.
    Though friends may praise one another saying, He is so intimate with us, and we so much (with him);
    (still) such friendship will appear mean.

    2.3.7. Investigation in forming Friendships

    791
    To make an untried man your friend is ruin sure;
    For friendship formed unbroken must endure.
    As those who are of a friendly nature will not forsake (a friend) after once loving (him), there is no evil so
    great as contracting a friendship without due inquiry.

    792
    Alliance with the man you have not proved and proved again,
    In length of days will give you mortal pain.
    The friendship contracted by him who has not made repeated inquiry will in the end grieve (him) to death.

    793
    Temper, descent, defects, associations free
    From blame: know these, then let the man be friend to thee.
    Make friendship (with one) after ascertaining (his) character, birth, defects and the whole of ones relations.

    794
    Who, born of noble race, from guilt would shrink with shame,
    Pay any price so yo u as friend that man may claim.
    The friendship of one who belongs to a (good) family and is afraid of (being charged with) guilt, is worth even purchasing.

    795
    Make them your chosen friend whose words repentance move,
    With power prescriptions path to show, while evil they reprove.
    You should examine and secure the friendship of those who can speak so as to make you weep over a
    crime (before its commission) or rebuke you severely (after you have done it) and are able to teach you (the ways of) the world.

    796
    Ruin itself one blessing lends:
    Tis staff that measures out ones friends.
    Even in ruin there is some good; (for) it is a rod by which one may measure fully (the affection of ones) relations.

    797
    Tis gain to any man, the sages say,
    Friendship of fools to put away.
    It is indead a gain for one to renounce the friendship of fools.

    798
    Think not the thoughts that dwarf the soul; nor take
    For friends the men who friends in time of grief forsake.
    Do not think of things that discourage your mind, nor contract friendship with those who would forsake
    you in adversity.

    799
    Of friends deserting us on ruins brink,
    Tis torture een in lifes last hour to think.
    The very thought of the friendship of those who have deserted one at the approach of adversity will burn
    ones mind at the time of death.

    800
    Cling to the friendship of the spotless ones; whateer you pay.
    Renounce alliance with the men of evil way.
    Continue to enjoy the friendship of the pure; (but) renounce even with a gift, the friendship of those who do
    not agree (with the world).

    2.3.8. Familiarity

    801
    Familiarity is friendships silent pact,
    That puts restraint on no familiar act.
    Imtimate friendship is that which cannot in the least be injured by (things done through the) right (of longstanding intimacy).

    802
    Familiar freedom friendships very frame supplies;
    To be its savour sweet is duty of the wise.
    The constituents of friendship are (things done through) the right of intimacy; to be pleased with such
    a right is the duty of the wise.

    803
    When to familiar acts men kind response refuse,
    What fruit from ancient friendships use?
    Of what avail is long-standing friendship, if friends do not admit as their own actions done through the right of intimacy ?

    804
    When friends unbidden do familiar acts with loving heart,
    Friends take the kindly deed in friendly part.
    If friends, through the right of friendship, do (anything) without being asked, the wise will be pleased with
    them on account of its desirability.

    805
    Not folly merely, but familiar carelessness,
    Esteem it, when your friends cause you distress.
    If friends should perform what is painful, understand that it is owing not only to ignorance, but also to the
    strong claims of intimacy.

    806
    Who stand within the bounds quit not, though loss impends,
    Association with the old familiar friends.
    Those who stand within the limits (of true friendship) will not even in adversity give up the intimacy of long-standing friends.

    807
    True friends, well versed in loving ways,
    Cease not to love, when friend their love betrays.
    Those who have (long) stood in the path of affection will not give it up even if their friends cause (them) their ruin.

    808
    In strength of friendship rare of friends disgrace who will not hear,
    The day his friend offends will day of grace to him appear.
    To those who understand that by which they should not listen to (tales about) the faults of their friends,
    that is a (profitable) day on which the latter may commit a fault.

    809
    Friendship of old and faithful friends,
    Who neer for sake, the world commends.
    They will be loved by the world, who have not forsaken the friendship of those with whom they have
    kept up an unbroken long-standing intimacy.

    810
    Ill-wishers even wish them well, who guard.
    For ancient friends, their wonted kind regard.
    Even enemies will love those who have never changed in their affection to their long-standingfriends.

    2.3.9. Evil Friendship

    811
    Though evil men should all-absorbing friendship show,
    Their love had better die away than grow.
    The decrease of friendship with those who look as if they would eat you up (through excess of love)
    while they are really destitute of goodness is far better than its increase.

    812
    What though you gain or lose friendship of men of alien heart,
    Who when you thrive are friends, and when you fail depart?
    Of what avail is it to get or lose the friendship of those who love when there is gain and leave when there is none ?

    813
    These are alike: the friends who ponder friendships gain
    Those who accept whateer you give, and all the plundering train.
    Friendship who calculate the profits (of their friendship), prostitutes who are bent on obtaining their gains,
    and thieves are (all) of the same character.

    814
    A steed untrained will leave you in the tug of war;
    Than friends like that to dwell alone is better far.
    Solitude is more to be desired than the society of those who resemble the untrained horses which throw
    down (their riders) in the fields of battle.

    815
    Tis better not to gain than gain the friendship profitless
    Of men of little minds, who succour fails when dangers press.
    It is far better to avoid that to contract the evil friendship of the base who cannot protect (their friends) even when appointed to do so.

    816
    Better ten million times incur the wise mans hate,
    Than form with foolish men a friendship intimate.
    The hatred of the wise is ten-million times more profitable than the excessive intimacy of the fool.

    817
    From foes ten million fold a greater good you gain,
    Than friendship yields thats formed with laughers vain.
    What comes from enemies is a hundred million times more profitable than what comes from the friendship
    of those who cause only laughter.

    818
    Those men who make a grievous toil of what they do
    On your behalf, their friendship silently eschew.
    Gradually abandon without revealing (beforehand) the friendship of those who pretend inability to carry
    out what they (really) could do.

    819
    Een in a dream the intercourse is bitterness
    With men whose deeds are other than their words profess.
    The friendship of those whose actions do not agree with their words will distress (one) even in (ones) dreams.

    820
    In anywise maintain not intercourse with those,
    Who in the house are friends, in hall are slandering foes.
    Avoid even the least approach to a contraction of friendship with those who would love you in private but ridicule you in public.

    2.3.10. Unreal Friendship

    821
    Anvil where thou shalt smitten be, when men occasion find,
    Is friendships form without consenting mind.
    The friendship of those who behave like friends without inward affection is a weapon that may be thrown
    when a favourable opportunity presents itself.

    822
    Friendship of those who seem our kin, but are not really kind.
    Will change from hour to hour like womans mind.
    The friendship of those who seem to be friends while they are not, will change like the love of women.

    823
    To heartfelt goodness men ignoble hardly may attain,
    Although abundant stores of goodly lore they gain.
    Though (ones) enemies may have mastered many good books, it will be impossible for them to
    become truly loving at heart.

    824
    Tis fitting you should dread dissemblers guile,
    Whose hearts are bitter while their faces smile.
    One should fear the deceitful who smile sweetly with their face but never love with their heart.

    825
    When minds are not in unison, its never; just,
    In any words men speak to put your trust.
    In nothing whatever is it proper to rely on the words of those who do not love with their heart.

    826
    Though many goodly words they speak in friendly tone,
    The words of foes will speedily be known.
    Though (ones) foes may utter good things as though they were friends, once will at once understand (their evil, import).

    827
    To pliant speech from hostile lips give thou no ear;
    Tis pliant bow that show the deadly peril near!
    Since the bending of the bow bespeaks evil, one should not accept (as good) the humiliating speeches of ones foes.

    828
    In hands that worship weapon ten hidden lies;
    Such are the tears that fall from foemans eyes.
    A weapon may be hid in the very hands with which (ones) foes adore (him) (and) the tears they shed are of the same nature.

    829
    Tis just, when men make much of you, and then despise,
    To make them smile, and slap in friendships guise.
    It is the duty of kings to affect great love but make it die (inwardly); as regard those foes who shew them
    great friendship but despise them (in their heart).

    830
    When time shall come that foes as friends appear,
    Then thou, to hide a hostile heart, a smiling face mayst wear.
    When ones foes begin to affect friendship, one should love them with ones looks, and, cherishing no
    love in the heart, give up (even the former).

    2.3.11. Folly

    831
    What one thing merits follys special name.
    Letting gain go, loss for ones own to claim!
    Folly is one (of the chief defects); it is that which (makes one) incur loss and forego gain.

    832
    Mid follies chiefest folly is to fix your love
    On deeds which to your station unbefitting prove.
    The greatest folly is that which leads one to take delight in doing what is forbidden.

    833
    Ashamed of nothing, searching nothing out, of loveless heart,
    Nought cherishing, tis thus the fool will play his part.
    Shamelessness indifference (to what must be sought after), harshness, and aversion for everything
    (that ought to be desired) are the qualities of the fool.

    834
    The sacred law he reads and learns, to other men expounds,-
    Himself obeys not; where can greater fool be found?
    There are no greater fools than he who, though he has read and understood (a great deal) and even
    taught it to others, does not walk according to his own teaching.

    835
    The fool will merit hell in one brief life on earth,
    In which he entering sinks through sevenfold round of birth.
    A fool can procure in a single birth a hell into which he may enter and suffer through all the seven births.

    836
    When fool some task attempts with uninstructed pains,
    It fails; nor that alone, himself he binds with chains.
    If the fool, who knows not how to act undertakes a work, he will (certainly) fail. (But) is it all ? He
    will even adorn himself with fetters.

    837
    When fools are blessed with fortunes bounteous store,
    Their foes feed full, their friends are prey to hunger sore.
    If a fool happens to get an immense fortune, his neighbours will enjoy it while his relations starve.

    838
    When follys hand grasps wealths increase, twill be
    As when a mad man raves in drunken glee.
    A fool happening to possess something is like the intoxication of one who is (already) giddy.

    839
    Friendship of fools i s very pleasant thing,
    Parting with them will leave behind no sting.
    The friendship between fools is exceedingly delightful (to each other): for at parting there will be
    nothing to cause them pain.

    840
    Like him who seeks his couch with unwashed feet,
    Is fool whose foot intrudes where wise men meet.
    The appearance of a fool in an assembly of the learned is like placing (ones) unwashed feet on a bed.

    2.3.12. Ignorance

    841
    Want of knowledge, mid all wants the sorest want we deem;
    Want of other things the world will not as want esteem.
    The want of wisdom is the greatest of all wants; but that of wealth the world will not regard as such.

    842
    The gift of foolish man, with willing heart bestowed, is nought,
    But blessing by receivers penance bought.
    (The cause of) a fool cheerfully giving (something) is nothing else but the receivers merit (in a former birth).

    843
    With keener anguish foolish men their own hearts wring,
    Than aught that even malice of their foes can bring.
    The suffering that fools inflict upon themselves is hardly possible even to foes.

    844
    What is stupidity? The arrogance that cries,
    Behold, we claim the glory of the wise.
    What is called want of wisdom is the vanity which says, We are wise.

    845
    If men what they have never learned assume to know,
    Upon their real learnings power a doubt twill throw.
    Fools pretending to know what has not been read (by them) will rouse suspicion even as to what they have thoroughly mastered.

    846
    Fools are they who their nakedness conceal,
    And yet their faults unveiled reveal.
    Even to cover ones nakedness would be folly, if (ones) faults were not covered (by forsaking them).

    847
    From out his soul who lets the mystic teachings die,
    Entails upon himself abiding misery.
    The fool who neglects precious counsel does, of his own accord, a great injury to himself.

    848
    Advised, he heeds not; of himself knows nothing wise;
    This mans whole life is all one plague until he dies.
    The fool will not perform (his duties) even when advised nor ascertain them himself; such a soul is a
    burden (to the earth) till it departs (from the body).

    849
    That man is blind to eyes that will not see who knowledge shows;-
    The blind man still in his blind fashion knows.
    One who would teach a fool will (simply) betray his folly; and the fool would (still) think himself wise in his own conceit.

    850
    Who what the world affirms as false proclaim,
    Oer all the earth receive a demons name.
    He who denies the existence of what the world believes in will be regarded as a demon on earth.

    2.3.13. Hostility

    851
    Hostility disunions plague will bring,
    That evil quality, to every living thing.
    The disease which fosters the evil of disunion among all creatures is termed hatred by the wise.

    852
    Though men disunion plan, and do thee much despite
    Tis best no enmity to plan, nor evil deeds requite.
    Though disagreeable things may be done from (a feeling of) disunion, it is far better that nothing painful
    be done from (that of) hatred.

    853
    If enmity, that grievous plague, you shun,
    Endless undying praises shall be won.
    To rid one-self of the distressing dtsease of hatred will bestow (on one) a never-decreasing imperishable fame.

    854
    Joy of joys abundant grows,
    When malice dies that woe of woes.
    If hatred which is the greatest misery is destroyed, it will yield the greatest delight.

    855
    If men from enmity can keep their spirits free,
    Who over them shall gain the victory?
    Who indeed would think of conquering those who naturally shrink back from hatred ?

    856
    The life of those who cherished enmity hold dear,
    To grievous fault and utter death is near.
    Failure and ruin are not far from him who says it is sweet to excel in hatred.

    857
    The very truth that greatness gives their eyes can never see,
    Who only know to work men woe, fulfilled of enmity.
    Those whose judgement brings misery through its connection with hatred cannot understand the triumphant nature of truth.

    858
    Tis gain to turn the soul from enmity;
    Ruin reigns where this hath mastery.
    Shrinking back from hatred will yield wealth; indulging in its increase will hasten ruin.

    859
    Men think not hostile thought in fortunes favouring hour,
    They cherish enmity when in misfortunes power.
    At the approach of wealth one will not think of hatred (but) to secure ones ruin, one will look to its increase.

    860
    From enmity do all afflictive evils flow;
    But friendliness doth wealth of kindly good bestow.
    All calamities are caused by hatred; but by the delight (of friendship) is caused the great wealth of good virtues.

    2.3.14. The Might of Hatred

    861
    With stronger than thyself, turn from the strife away;
    With weaker shun not, rather court the fray.
    Avoid offering resistance to the strong; (but) never fail to cherish enmity towards the weak.

    862
    No kinsmans love, no strength of friends has he;
    How can he bear his foemans enmity?
    How can he who is unloving, destitute of powerful aids, and himself without strength overcome the might of his foe ?

    863
    A craven thing! knows nought, accords with none, gives nought away;
    To wrath of any foe he falls an easy prey.
    In the estimation of foes miserably weak is he, who is timid, ignorant, unsociable and niggardly.

    864
    His wrath still blazes, every secret told; each day
    This mans in every place to every foe an easy prey.
    He who neither refrains from anger nor keeps his secrets will at all times and in all places be easily conquered by all.

    865
    No way of right he scans, no precepts bind, no crimes affright,
    No grace of good he owns; such mans his foes delight.
    (A) pleasing (object) to his foes is he who reads not moral works, does nothing that is enjoined by
    them cares not for reproach and is not possessed of good qualities.

    866
    Blind in his rage, his lustful passions rage and swell;
    If such a man mislikes you, like it well.
    Highly to be desired is the hatred of him whose anger is blind, and whose lust increases beyond measure.

    867
    Unseemly are his deeds, yet proffering aid, the man draws nigh:
    His hate- tis cheap at any price- be sure to buy!
    It is indeed necessary to obtain even by purchase the hatred of him who having begun (a work) does
    what is not conductive (to its accomplishment).

    868
    No gracious gifts he owns, faults many cloud his fame;
    His foes rejoice, for none with kindred claim.
    He will become friendless who is without (any good) qualities. and whose faults are many; (such a character) is a help to (his) foes.

    869
    The joy of victory is never far removed from those
    Whove luck to meet with ignorant and timid foes.
    There will be no end of lofty delights to the victorious, if their foes are (both) ignorant and timid.

    870
    The task of angry war with men unlearned in virtues lore
    Who will not meet, glory shall meet him never more.
    The light (of fame) will never be gained by him who gains not the trifling reputation of having fought an unlearned (foe).

    2.3.15. Knowing the Quality of Hate

    871
    For Hate, that ill-conditioned thing not een in jest.
    Let any evil lon ging rule your breast.
    The evil of hatred is not of a nature to be desired by one even in sport.

    872
    Although you hate incur of those whose ploughs are bows,
    Make not the men whose ploughs are words your foes!
    Though you may incur the hatred of warriors whose ploughs are bows, incur not that of ministers whose ploughs are words.

    873
    Than men of mind diseased, a wretch more utterly forlorn,
    Is he who stands alone, object of many foemans scorn.
    He who being alone, incurs the hatred of many is more infatuated than even mad men.

    874
    The world secure on his dexterity depends,
    Whose worthy rule can change his foes to friends.
    The world abides in the greatness of that good-natured man who behaves so as to turn hatred into friendship.

    875
    Without ally, who fights with twofold enemy oermatched,
    Must render one of these a friend attached.
    He who is alone and helpless while his foes are two should secure one of them as an agreeable help (to himself).

    876
    Whether you trust or not, in time of sore distress,
    Questions of diffrence or agreement cease to press.
    Though (ones foe is) aware or not of ones misfortune one should act so as neither to join nor separate (from him).

    877
    To those who know them not, complain not of your woes;
    Nor to your foemans eyes infirmities disclose.
    Relate not your suffering even to friends who are ignorant of it, nor refer to your weakness in the presence of your foes.

    878
    Know thou the way, then do thy part, thyself defend;
    Thus shall the pride of those that hate thee have an end.
    The joy of ones foes will be destroyed if one guards oneself by knowing the way (of acting) and securing assistance.

    879
    Destroy the thorn, while tender point can work thee no offence;
    Matured by time, twill pierce the hand that plucks it thence.
    A thorny tree should be felled while young, (for) when it is grown it will destroy the hand of the feller.

    880
    But breathe upon them, and they surely die,
    Who fail to tame the pride of angry enemy.
    Those who do not destroy the pride of those who hate (them) will certainly not exist even to breathe.

    2.3.16. Enmity within

    881
    Water and shade, if they unwholesome prove, will bring you pain.
    And qualities of friends who treacherous act, will be your bane.
    Shade and water are not pleasant, (if) they cause disease; so are the qualities of (ones) relations
    not agreeable, (if) they cause pain.

    882
    Dread not the foes that as drawn swords appear;
    Friendship of foes, who seem like kinsmen, fear!
    Fear not foes (who say they would cut) like a sword; (but) fear the friendship of foes (who seemingly act) like relations.

    883
    Of hidden hate beware, and guard thy life;
    In troublous time twill deeper wound than potters knife.
    Fear internal enmity and guard yourself; (if not) it will destroy (you) in an evil hour, as surely as the
    tool which cuts the potters clay.

    884
    If secret enmities arise that minds pervert,
    Then even kin unkind will work thee grievous hurt.
    The secret enmity of a person whose mind in unreformed will lead to many evils causing disaffection
    among (ones) relations.

    885
    Amid ones relatives if hidden hath arise,
    Twill hurt inflict in deadly wise.
    If there appears internal hatred in a (kings) family; it will lead to many a fatal crime.

    886
    If discord finds a place midst those who dwelt at one before,
    Tis ever hard to keep destruction from the door.
    If hatred arises among (ones) own people, it will be hardly possible (for one) to escape death.

    887
    As casket with its cover, though in one they live alway,
    No union to th e house where hate concealed hath sway.
    Never indeed will a family subject to internal hatred unite (really) though it may present an apparent
    union like that of a casket and its lid.

    888
    As gold with which the file contends is worn away,
    So strength of house declines where hate concealed hath sway.
    A family subject to internal hatred will wear out and lose its strength like iron that has been filed away.

    889
    Though slight as shred of seasame seed it be,
    Destruction lurks in hidden enmity.
    Although internal hatred be as small as the fragment of the sesamum (seed), still does destruction dwell in it.

    890
    Domestic life with those who dont agree,
    Is dwelling in a shed with snake for company.
    Living with those who do not agree (with one) is like dwelling with a cobra (in the same) hut.

    2.3.17. Not Offending the Great

    891
    The chiefest care of those who guard themselves from ill,
    Is not to slight the powers of those who work their mighty will.
    Not to disregard the power of those who can carry out (their wishes) is more important than all the
    watchfulness of those who guard (themselves against evil).

    892
    If men will lead their lives reckless of great mens will,
    Such life, through great mens powers, will bring perpetual ill.
    To behave without respect for the great (rulers) will make them do (us) irremediable evils.

    893
    Who ruin covet let them shut their ears, and do despite
    To those who, where they list to ruin have the might.
    If a person desires ruin, let him not listen to the righteous dictates of law, but commit crimes
    against those who are able to slay (other sovereigns).

    894
    When powerless man gainst men of power will evil deeds essay,
    Tis beckning with the hand for Death to seize them for its prey.
    The weak doing evil to the strong is like beckoning Yama to come (and destroy them).

    895
    Who dare the fiery wrath of monarchs dread,
    Whereer they flee, are numbered with the dead.
    Those who have incurred the wrath of a cruel and mighty potentate will not prosper wherever they may go.

    896
    Though in the conflagration caught, he may escape from thence:
    He scapes not who in life to great ones gives offence.
    Though burnt by a fire (from a forest), one may perhaps live; (but) never will he live who has
    shown disrespect to the great (devotees).

    897
    Though every royal gift, and stores of wealth your life should crown,
    What are they, if the worthy men of mighty virtue frown?
    If a king incurs the wrath of the righteous great, what will become of his government with its
    splendid auxiliaries and (all) its untold wealth ?

    898
    If they, whose virtues like a mountain rise, are light esteemed;
    They die from earth who, with their households, ever-during seemed.
    If (the) hill-like (devotees) resolve on destruction, those who seemed to be everlasting will be
    destroyed root and branch from the earth.

    899
    When blazes forth the wrath of men of lofty fame,
    Kings even fall from high estate and perish in the flame.
    If those of exalted vows burst in a rage, even (Indra) the king will suffer a sudden loss and be entirely ruined.

    900
    Though all-surpassing wealth of aid the boast,
    If men in glorious virtue great are wrath, theyre lost.
    Though in possession of numerous auxiliaries, they will perish who are-exposed to the wrath
    of the noble whose penance is boundless.

    2.3.18. Being led by Women

    901
    Who give their soul to love of wife acquire not nobler gain;
    Who give their soul to strenuous deeds such meaner joys disdain.
    Those who lust after their wives will not attain the excellence of virtue; and it is just this that is
    not desired by those who are bent on acquiring wealth.

    902
    Who gives himself to love of wife, careless of noble name
    His wealth will clothe him with oerwhelming shame.
    The wealth of him who, regardless (of his manliness), devotes himself to his wifes feminine nature
    will cause great shame (to ali men) and to himself;

    903
    Who to his wife submits, his strange, unmanly mood
    Will daily bring him shame among the good.
    The frailty that stoops to a wife will always make (her husband) feel ashamed among the good.

    904
    No glory crowns een manly actions wrought
    By him who dreads his wife, nor gives the other world a thought.
    The undertaking of one, who fears his wife and is therefore destitute of (bliss), will never be applauded.

    905
    Who quakes before his wife will ever tremble too,
    Good deeds to men of good deserts to do.
    He that fears his wife will always be afraid of doing good deeds (even) to the good.

    906
    Though, like the demi-gods, in bliss they dwell secure from harm,
    Those have no dignity who fear the housewifes slender arm.
    They that fear the bamboo-like shoulders of their wives will be destitute of manliness though they may flourish like the Gods.

    907
    The dignity of modest womanhood excels
    His manliness, obedient to a womans law who dwells.
    Even shame faced womanhood is more to be esteemed than the shameless manhood that performs the behests of a wife.

    908
    Who to the will of her with beauteous brow their lives conform,
    Aid not their friends in need, nor acts of charity perform.
    Those who yield to the wishes of their wives will neither relieve the wants of (their) friends nor perform virtuous deeds.

    909
    No virtuous deed, no seemly wealth, no pleasure, rests
    With them who live obedient to their wives behests.
    From those who obey the commands of their wives are to be expected neither deeds of virtue,
    nor those of wealth nor (even) those of pleasure.

    910
    Where pleasures of the mind, that dwell in realms of thought, abound,
    Folly, that springs from overweening womans love, is never found.
    The foolishness that results from devotion to a wife will never be found in those who possess
    a reflecting mind and a prosperity (flowing) therefrom.

    2.3.19. Wanton Women

    911
    Those that choice armlets wear who seek not thee with love,
    But seek thy wealth, their pleasant words will ruin prove.
    The sweet words of elegant braceleted (prostitutes) who desire (a man) not from affection but from
    avarice, will cause sorrow.

    912
    Who weigh the gain, and utter virtuous words with vicious heart,
    Weighing such womens worth, from their society depart.
    One must ascertain the character of the ill-natured women who after ascertaining the wealth (of a man)
    speak (as if they were) good natured-ones, and avoid intercourse (with them).

    913
    As one in darkened room, some stranger corpse inarms,
    Is he who seeks delight in mercenary womens charms!
    The false embraces of wealth-loving women are like (hired men) embracing a strange corpse in a dark room.

    914
    Their worthless charms, whose only weal is wealth of gain,
    From touch of these the wise, who seek the wealth of grace, abstain.
    The wise who seek the wealth of grace will not desire the base favours of those who regard wealth
    (and not pleasure) as (their) riches.

    915
    From contact with their worthless charms, whose charms to all are free,
    The men with sense of good and lofty wisdom blest will flee;
    Those whose knowledge is made excellent by their (natural) sense will not covet the trffling delights
    of those whose favours are common (to all).

    916
    From touch of those who worthless cha rms, with wanton arts, display,
    The men who would their own true good maintain will turn away.
    Those who would spread (the fame of) their own goodness will not desire the shoulders of those,who
    rejoice in their accomplishments and bestow their despicable favours (on all who pay).

    917
    Who cherish alien thoughts while folding in their feigned embrace,
    These none approach save those devoid of virtues grace.
    Those who are destitute of a perfectly (reformed) mind will covet the shoulders of those who embrace
    (them) while their hearts covet other things.

    918
    As demoness who lures to ruin womans treacherous love
    To men devoid of wisdoms searching power will prove.
    The wise say that to such as are destitute of discerning sense the embraces of faithless women are
    (as ruinous as those of) the celestail female.

    919
    The wantons tender arm, with gleaming jewels decked,
    Is hell, where sink degraded souls of men abject.
    The delicate shoulders of prostitutes with excellent jewels are a hell into which are plunged the ignorant base.

    920
    Women of double minds, strong drink, and dice; to these givn oer,
    Are those on whom the light of Fortune shines no more.
    Treacherous women, liquor, and gambling are the associates of such as have forsaken by Fortune.

    2.3.20. Not Drinking Palm-Wine

    921
    Who love the palms intoxicating juice, each day,
    No revrence they command, their glory fades away.
    Those who always thirst after drink will neither inspire fear (in others) nor retain the light (of their fame).

    922
    Drink not inebriating draught. Let him count well the cost.
    Who drinks, by drinking, all good mens esteem is lost.
    Let no liquor be drunk; if it is desired, let it be drunk by those who care not for esteem of the great.

    923
    The drunkards joy is sorrow to his mothers eyes;
    What must it be in presence of the truly wise?
    Intoxication is painful even in the presence of (ones) mother; what will it not then be in that of the wise ?

    924
    Shame, goodly maid, will turn her back for aye on them
    Who sin the drunkards grievous sin, that all condemn.
    The fair maid of modesty will turn her back on those who are guilty of the great and abominable crime of drunkenness.

    925
    With gift of goods who self-oblivion buys,
    Is ignorant of all that man should prize.
    To give money and purchase unconsciousness is the result of ones ignorance of (ones own actions).

    926
    Sleepers are as the dead, no otherwise they seem;
    Who drink intoxicating draughts, they poison quaff, we deem.
    They that sleep resemble the deed; (likewise) they that drink are no other than poison-eaters.

    927
    Who turn aside to drink, and droop their heavy eye,
    Shall be their townsmens jest, when they the fault espy.
    Those who always intoxicate themselves by a private (indulgence in) drink; will have their secrets
    detected and laughed at by their fellow-townsmen.

    928
    No more in secret drink, and then deny thy hidden fraud;
    What in thy mind lies hid shall soon be known abroad.
    Let (the drunkard) give up saying I have never drunk; (for) the moment (he drinks) he will simply
    betray his former attempt to conceal.

    929
    Like him who, lamp in hand, would seek one sunk beneath the wave.
    Is he who strives to sober drunken man with reasonings grave.
    Reasoning with a drunkard is like going under water with a torch in search of a drowned man.

    930
    When one, in sober interval, a drunken man espies,
    Does he not think, Such is my folly in my revelries?
    When (a drunkard) who is sober sees one who is not, it looks as if he remembered not the evil
    effects of his (own) drink.

    2. 3.21. Gaming (Gambling)

    931
    Seek not the gamesters play; though you should win,
    Your gain is as the baited hook the fish takes in.
    Though able to win, let not one desire gambling; (for) even what is won is like a fish swallowing the iron in fish-hook.

    932
    Is there for gamblers, too, that gaining one a hundred lose, some way
    That they may good obtain, and see a prosperous day?
    Is there indeed a means of livelihood that can bestow happiness on gamblers who gain one and lose a hundred ?

    933
    If prince unceasing speak of nought but play,
    Treasure and revenue will pass from him away.
    If the king is incessantly addicted to the rolling dice in the hope of gain, his wealth and the
    resources thereof will take their departure and fall into others hands.

    934
    Gaming brings many woes, and ruins fair renown;
    Nothing to want brings men so surely down.
    There is nothing else that brings (us) poverty like gambling which causes many a misery and
    destroys (ones) reputation.

    935
    The dice, and gaming-hall, and gamesters art, they eager sought,
    Thirsting for gain- the men in other days who came to nought.
    Penniless are those who by reason of their attachment would never forsake gambling, the
    gambling-place and the handling (of dice).

    936
    Gamblings Misfortunes other name: oer whom she casts her veil,
    They suffer grievous want, and sorrows sore bewail.
    Those who are swallowed by the goddess called gambling will never have their hunger satisfied,
    but suffer the pangs of hell in the next world.

    937
    Ancestral wealth and noble fame to ruin haste,
    If men in gamblers halls their precious moments waste.
    To waste time at the place of gambling will destroy inherited wealth and goodness of character.

    938
    Gambling wastes wealth, to falsehood bends the soul: it drives away
    All grace, and leaves the man to utter misery a prey.
    Gambling destroys property, teaches falsehood, puts an end to benevolence, and brings in misery (here and hereafter).

    939
    Clothes, wealth, food, praise, and learning, all depart
    From him on gamblers gain who sets his heart.
    The habit of gambling prevents the attainment of these five: clothing, wealth, food, fame and learning.

    940
    Howeer he lose, the gamblers heart is ever in the play;
    Een so the soul, despite its griefs, would live on earth alway.
    As the gambler loves (his vice) the more he loses by it, so does the soul love (the body) the more it suffers through it.

    2.3.22. Medicine

    941
    The learned books count three, with wind as first; of these,
    As any one prevail, or fail; twill cause disease.
    If (food and work are either) excessive or deficient, the three things enumerated by (medical) writers,
    flatulence, biliousness, and phlegm, will cause (one) disease.

    942
    No need of medicine to heal your bodys pain,
    If, what you ate before digested well, you eat again.
    No medicine is necessary for him who eats after assuring (himself) that what he has (already) eaten has been digested.

    943
    Who has a body gained may long the gift retain,
    If, food digested well, in measure due he eat again.
    If (ones food has been) digested let one eat with moderation; (for) that is the way to prolong the life of an embodied soul.

    944
    Knowing the food digested well, when hunger prompteth thee,
    With constant care, the viands choose that well agree.
    (First) assure yourself that your food has been digested and never fail to eat, when very hungry,
    whatever is not disagreeable (to you).

    945
    With self-denial take the well-selected meal;
    So shall thy frame no sudden sickness feel.
    There will be no disaster to ones life if on e eats with moderation, food that is not disagreeable.

    946
    On modest temperance as pleasures pure,
    So pain attends the greedy epicure.
    As pleasure dwells with him who eats moderately, so disease (dwells) with the glutton who eats voraciously.

    947
    Who largely feeds, nor measure of the fire within maintains,
    That thoughtless man shall feel unmeasured pains.
    He will be afflicted with numberless diseases, who eats immoderately, ignorant (of the rules of health).

    948
    Disease, its cause, what may abate the ill:
    Let leech examine these, then use his skill.
    Let the physician enquire into the (nature of the) disease, its cause and its method of cure and treat
    it faithfully according to (medical rule).

    949
    The habitudes of patient and disease, the crises of the ill
    These must the learned leech think over well, then use his skill.
    The learned (physician) should ascertain the condition of his patient; the nature of his disease,
    and the season (of the year) and (then) proceed (with his treatment).

    950
    For patient, leech, and remedies, and him who waits by patients side,
    The art of medicine must fourfold code of laws provide.
    Medical science consists of four parts, viz., patient, physician, medicine and compounder;
    and each of these (again) contains four sub-divisions.

    2.4 Miscellaneous
    2.4.1. Nobility

    951
    Save in the scions of a noble house, you never find
    Instinctive sense of right and virtuous shame combined.
    Consistency (of thought, word and deed) and fear (of sin) are conjointly natural only to the high-born.

    952
    In these three things the men of noble birth fail not:
    In virtuous deed and truthful word, and chastened thought.
    The high-born will never deviate from these three; good manners, truthfulness and modesty.

    953
    The smile, the gift, the pleasant word, unfailing courtesy
    These are the signs, they say, of true nobility.
    A cheerful countenance, liberality, pleasant words, and an unreviling disposition, these four are
    said to be the proper qualities of the truly high-born.

    954
    Millions on millions piled would never win
    The men of noble race to soul-degrading sin.
    Though blessed with immense wealth, the noble will never do anything unbecoming.

    955
    Though stores for charity should fail within, the ancient race
    Will never lose its old ancestral grace.
    Though their means fall off, those born in ancient families, will not lose their character (for liberality).

    956
    Whose minds are set to live as fits their sires unspotted fame,
    Stooping to low deceit, commit no deeds that gender shame.
    Those who seek to preserve the irreproachable honour of their families will not viciously do what is detrimental thereto.

    957
    The faults of men of noble race are seen by every eye,
    As spots on her bright orb that walks sublime the evening sky.
    The defects of the noble will be observed as clearly as the dark spots in the moon.

    958
    If lack of love appear in those who bear some goodly name,
    Twill make men doubt the ancestry they claim.
    If one of a good family betrays want of affection, his descent from it will be called in question.

    959
    Of soil the plants that spring thereout will show the worth:
    The words they speak declare the men of noble birth.
    As the sprout indicates the nature of the soil, (so) the speech of the noble indicates (that of ones birth).

    960
    Who seek for good the grace of virtuous shame must know;
    Who seek for noble name to all must reverence show.
    He who desires a good name must desire modesty; and he who desires (the continuance of)
    a family greatness must be submissi ve to all.

    2.4.2. Honour

    961
    Though linked to splendours man no otherwise may gain,
    Reject each act that may thine honours clearness stain.
    Actions that would degrade (ones) family should not be done; though they may be so
    important that not doing them would end in death.

    962
    Who seek with glory to combine honours untarnished fame,
    Do no inglorious deeds, though men accord them glorys name.
    Those who desire (to maintain their) honour, will surely do nothing dishonourable,
    even for the sake of fame.

    963
    Bow down thy soul, with increase blest, in happy hour;
    Lift up thy heart, when stript of all by fortunes power.
    In great prosperity humility is becoming; dignity, in great adversity.

    964
    Like hairs from off the head that fall to earth,
    When falln from high estate are men of noble birth.
    They who have fallen from their (high) position are like the hair which has fallen from the head.

    965
    If meanness, slight as abrus grain, by men be wrought,
    Though like a hill their high estate, they sink to nought.
    Even those who are exalted like a hill will be thought low, if they commit deeds that are debasing.

    966
    It yields no praise, nor to the land of Gods throws wide the gate:
    Why follow men who scorn, and at their bidding wait?
    Of what good is it (for the high-born) to go and stand in vain before those who revile him ?
    it only brings him loss of honour and exclusion from heaven.

    967
    Better twere said, Hes perished! than to gain
    The means to live, following in foemans train.
    It is better for a man to be said of him that he died in his usual state than that he eked
    out his life by following those who disgraced him.

    968
    When high estate has lost its pride of honour meet,
    Is life, that nurses this poor flesh, as nectar sweet?
    For the high-born to keep their body in life when their honour is gone will certainly not
    prove a remedy against death.

    969
    Like the wild ox that, of its tuft bereft, will pine away,
    Are those who, of their honour shorn, will quit the light of day.
    Those who give up (their) life when (their) honour is at stake are like the yark which kills
    itself at the loss of (even one of) its hairs.

    970
    Who, when dishonour comes, refuse to live, their honoured memory
    Will live in worship and applause of all the world for aye!
    The world will (always) praise and adore the fame of the honourable who would rather die
    than suffer indignity.

    2.4.3. Greatness

    971
    The light of life is mental energy; disgrace is his
    Who says, I ill lead a happy life devoid of this.
    Ones light is the abundance of ones courage; ones darkness is the desire to live
    destitute of such (a state of mind.)

    972
    All men that live are one in circumstances of birth;
    Diversities of works give each his special worth.
    All human beings agree as regards their birth but differ as regards their characteristics,
    because of the different qualities of their actions.

    973
    The men of lofty line, whose souls are mean, are never great
    The men of lowly birth, when high of soul, are not of low estate.
    Though (raised) above, the base cannot become great; though (brought) low, the great cannot become base.

    974
    Like single-hearted women, greatness too,
    Exists while to itself is true.
    Even greatness, like a womans chastity, belongs only to him who guards himself.

    975
    The man endowed with greatness true,
    Rare deeds in perfect wise will do.
    (Though reduced) the great will be able to perform, in the proper way, deeds difficult (for others to do).

    976
    As votaries of the truly great we will ourselves enroll,
    Is thought that enters not the mind of men of little soul.
    It is never in the nature of the base to seek the society of the great and partake of their nature.

    977
    Wheneer distinction lights on some unworthy head,
    Then deeds of haughty insolence are bred.
    Even nobility of birth, wealth and learning, if in (the possession of) the base, will (only) produce everincreasing pride.

    978
    Greatness humbly bends, but littleness always
    Spreads out its plumes, and loads itself with praise.
    The great will always humble himself; but the mean will exalt himself in self-admiration.

    979
    Greatness is absence of conceit; meanness, we deem,
    Riding on car of vanity supreme.
    Freedom from conceit is (the nature of true) greatness; (while) obstinacy therein is (that of) meanness.

    980
    Greatness will hide a neighbours shame;
    Meanness his faults to all the world proclaim.
    The great hide the faults of others; the base only divulge them.

    2.4.4. Perfectness

    981
    All goodly things are duties to the men, they say
    Who set themselves to walk in virtues perfect way.
    It is said that those who are conscious of their duty and behave with a perfect goodness
    will regard as natural all that is good.

    982
    The good of inward excellence they claim,
    The perfect men; all other good is only good in name.
    The only delight of the perfect is that of their goodness; all other (sensual) delights are not
    to be included among any (true) delights.

    983
    Love, modesty, beneficence, benignant grace,
    With truth, are pillars five of perfect virtues resting-place.
    Affection, fear (of sin), benevolence, favour and truthfulness; these are the five pillars on
    which perfect goodness rests.

    984
    The type of penitence is virtuous good that nothing slays;
    To speak no ill of other men is perfect virtues praise.
    Penance consists in the goodness that kills not , and perfection in the goodness that tells not others faults.

    985
    Submission is the might of men of mighty acts; the sage
    With that same weapon stills his foemans rage.
    Stooping (to inferiors) is the strength of those who can accomplish (an undertaking); and that is the
    weapon with which the great avert their foes.

    986
    What is perfections test? The equal mind.
    To bear repulse from even meaner men resigned.
    The touch-stone of perfection is to receive a defeat even at the hands of ones inferiors.

    987
    What fruit doth your perfection yield you, say!
    Unless to men who work you ill good repay?
    Of what avail is perfect goodness if it cannot do pleasing things even to those who have pained (it) ?

    988
    To soul with perfect virtues strength endued,
    Brings no disgrace the lack of every earthly good.
    Poverty is no disgrace to one who abounds in good qualities.

    989
    Call them of perfect virtues sea the shore,
    Who, though the fates should fail, fail not for evermore.
    Those who are said to be the shore of the sea of perfection will never change, though ages may change.

    990
    The mighty earth its burthen to sustain must cease,
    If perfect virtue of the perfect men decrease.
    If there is a defect in the character of the perfect, (even) the great world cannot bear (its) burden.

    2.4.5. Courtesy

    991
    Who easy access give to every man, they say,
    Of kindly courtesy will learn with ease the way.
    If one is easy of access to all, it will be easy for one to obtain the virtue called goodness.

    992
    Benevolence and high born dignity,
    These two are beaten paths of courtesy.
    Affectionateness and birth in a good family, these two constitute what is called a proper behaviour to all.

    993
    Men are not one because their members seem alike to outward view;
    Similitude of kindred quality makes likeness true.
    Resemblance of bodies is no resemblance of souls; true resemblance is the resemblance of qualities that attract.

    994
    Of men of fruitful life, who kindly benefits dispense,
    The world unites to praise the noble excellence.
    The world applauds the character of those whose usefulness results from their equity and charity.

    995
    Contempt is evil though in sport. They who mans nature know,
    Een in their wrath, a courteous mind will show.
    Reproach is painful to one even in sport; those (therefore) who know the nature of others
    exhibit (pleasing) qualities even when they are hated.

    996
    The world abides; for worthy men its weight sustain.
    Were it not so, twould fall to dust again.
    The (way of the) world subsists by contact with the good; if not, it would bury itself in the
    earth and perish.

    997
    Though sharp their wit as file, as blocks they must remain,
    Whose souls are void of courtesy humane.
    He who is destitute of (true) human qualities (only) resembles a tree, though he may possess the sharpness of a file.

    998
    Though men with all unfriendly acts and wrongs assail,
    Tis uttermost disgrace in courtesy to fail.
    It is wrong (for the wise) not to exhibit (good) qualities even towards those who bearing
    no friendship (for them) do only what is hateful.

    999
    To him who knows not how to smile in kindly mirth,
    Darkness in daytime broods oer all the vast and mighty earth.
    To those who cannot rejoice, the wide world is buried darkness even in (broad) day light.

    1000
    Like sweet milk soured because in filthy vessel poured,
    Is ample wealth in churlish mans unopened coffers stored.
    The great wealth obtained by one who has no goodness will perish like pure milk spoilt
    by the impurity of the vessel.

    2.4.6. Wealth without Benefaction

    1001
    Who fills his house with ample store, enjoying none,
    Is dead. Nought with the useless heap is done.
    He who does not enjoy the immense riches he has heaped up in his house, is (to be reckoned as)
    dead, (for) there is nothing achieved (by him).

    1002
    Who giving nought, opines from wealth all blessing springs,
    Degraded birth that doting misers folly brings.
    He who knows that wealth yields every pleasure and yet is so blind as to lead miserly life will be born a demon.

    1003
    Who lust to heap up wealth, but glory hold not dear,
    It burthens earth when on the stage of being they appear.
    A burden to the earth are men bent on the acquisition of riches and not (true) fame.

    1004
    Whom no one loves, when he shall pass away,
    What doth he look to leave behind, I pray?
    What will the miser who is not liked (by any one) regard as his own (in the world to come) ?

    1005
    Amid accumulated millions they are poor,
    Who nothing give and nought enjoy of all they store.
    Those who neither give (to others) nor enjoy (their property) are (truly) destitute, though
    possessing immense riches.

    1006
    Their ample wealth is misery to men of churlish heart,
    Who nought themselves enjoy, and nought to worthy men impart.
    He who enjoys not (his riches) nor relieves the wants of the worthy is a disease to his wealth.

    1007
    Like woman fair in lonelihood who aged grows,
    Is wealth of him on needy men who nought bestows.
    The wealth of him who never bestows anything on the destitute is like a woman of beauty
    growing old without a husband.

    1008
    When he whom no man loves exults in great prosperity,
    Tis as when fruits in midmost of the town some p oisonous tree.
    The wealth of him who is disliked (by all) is like the fruit-bearing of the etty tree in the midst of a town.

    1009
    Who love abandon, self-afflict, and virtues way forsake
    To heap up glittering wealth, their hoards shall others take.
    Strangers will inherit the riches that have been acquired without regard for friendship, comfort and charity.

    1010
    Tis as when rain cloud in the heaven grows day,
    When generous wealthy man endures brief poverty.
    The short-lived poverty of those who are noble and rich is like the clouds becoming poor (for a while).

    2.4.7. Shame

    1011
    To shrink abashed from evil deed is generous shame;
    Other is that of bright-browed one of virtuous fame.
    True modesty is the fear of (evil) deeds; all other modesty is (simply) the bashfulness of virtuous maids.

    1012
    Food, clothing, and other things alike all beings own;
    By sense of shame the excellence of men is known.
    Food, clothing and the like are common to all men but modesty is peculiar to the good.

    1013
    All spirits homes of flesh as habitation claim,
    And perfect virtue ever dwells with shame.
    As the body is the abode of the spirit, so the excellence of modesty is the abode of perfection.

    1014
    And is not shame an ornament to men of dignity?
    Without it step of stately pride is piteous thing to see.
    Is not the modesty ornament of the noble ? Without it, their haughtiness would be a pain (to others).

    1015
    As home of virtuous shame by all the world the men are known,
    Who feel ashamed for others, guilt as for their own.
    The world regards as the abode of modesty him who fear his own and others guilt.

    1016
    Unless the hedge of shame inviolate remain,
    For men of lofty soul the earths vast realms no charms retain.
    The great make modesty their barrier (of defence) and not the wide world.

    1017
    The men of modest soul for shame would life an offering make,
    But neer abandon virtuous shame for lifes dear sake.
    The modest would rather lose their life for the sake of modesty than lose modesty for the sake of life.

    1018
    Though knowst no shame, while all around asha med must be:
    Virtue will shrink away ashamed of thee!
    Virtue is likely to forsake him who shamelessly does what others are ashamed of.

    1019
    Twill race consume if right observance fail;
    Twill every good consume if shamelessness prevail.
    Want of manners injures ones family; but want of modesty injures ones character.

    1020
    Tis as with strings a wooden puppet apes lifes functions, when
    Those void of shame within hold intercourse with men.
    The actions of those who are without modesty at heart are like those of puppet moved by a string.

    2.4.8. The Way of Maintaining the Family

    1021
    Who says Ill do my work, nor slack my hand,
    His greatness, clothed with dignity supreme, shall stand.
    There is no higher greatness than that of one saying. I will not cease in my effort (to raise my family).

    1022
    The manly act and knowledge full, when these combine
    In deed prolonged, then lengthens out the races line.
    Ones family is raised by untiring perseverance in both effort and wise contrivances.

    1023
    Ill make my race renowned, if man shall say,
    With vest succinct the goddess leads the way.
    The Deity will clothe itself and appear before him who resolves on raising his family.

    1024
    Who labours for his race with unremitting pain,
    Without a thought spontaneously, his end will gain.
    Those who are prompt in their efforts (to better their family) need no deliberation, such efforts will of themselves succee d.

    1025
    With blameless life who seeks to build his races fame,
    The world shall circle him, and kindred claim.
    People will eagerly seek the friendship of the prosperous soul who has raised his family without foul means.

    1026
    Of virtuous manliness the world accords the praise
    To him who gives his powers, the house from which he sprang to raise.
    A mans true manliness consists in making himself the head and benefactor of his family.

    1027
    The fearless hero bears the brunt amid the warrior throng;
    Amid his kindred so the burthen rests upon the strong.
    Like heroes in the battle-field, the burden (of protection etc.) is borne by those who are the most efficient in a family.

    1028
    Wait for no season, when you would your house uprear;
    Twill perish, if you wait supine, or hold your honour dear.
    As a family suffers by (ones) indolence and false dignity there is to be so season (good or bad) to
    those who strive to raise their family.

    1029
    Is not his body vase that various sorrows fill,
    Who would his household screen from every ill?
    Is it only to suffering that his body is exposed who undertakes to preserve his family from evil ?

    1030
    When trouble the foundation saps the house must fall,
    If no strong hand be nigh to prop the tottering wall.
    If there are none to prop up and maintain a family (in distress), it will fall at the stroke of the axe of misfortune.

    2.4.9. Agriculture

    1031
    Howeer they roam, the world must follow still the ploughers team;
    Though toilsome, culture of the ground as noblest toil esteem.
    Agriculture, though laborious, is the most excellent (form of labour); for people, though they go
    about (in search of various employments), have at last to resort to the farmer.

    1032
    The ploughers are the linch-pin of the world; they bear
    Them up who other works perform, too weak its toils to share.
    Agriculturists are (as it were) the linch-pin of the world for they support all other workers who cannot till the soil.

    1033
    Who ploughing eat their food, they truly live:
    The rest to others bend subservient, eating what they give.
    They alone live who live by agriculture; all others lead a cringing, dependent life.

    1034
    Oer many a land they ll see their monarch reign,
    Whose fields are shaded by the waving grain.
    Patriotic farmers desire to bring all other states under the control of their own king.

    1035
    They nothing ask from others, but to askers give,
    Who raise with their own hands the food on which they live.
    Those whose nature is to live by manual labour will never beg but give something to those who beg.

    1036
    For those who ve left what all men love no place is found,
    When they with folded hands remain who till the ground.
    If the farmers hands are slackened, even the ascetic state will fail.

    1037
    Reduce your soil to that dry state, When ounce is quarter-ounces weight;
    Without one handful of manure, Abundant crops you thus secure.
    If the land is dried so as to reduce one ounce of earth to a quarter, it will grow plentifully
    even without a handful of manure.

    1038
    To cast manure is better than to plough;
    Weed well; to guard is more than watering now
    Manuring is better than ploughing; after weeding, watching is better than watering (it).

    1039
    When master from the field aloof hath stood;
    Then land will sulk, like wife in angry mood.
    If the owner does not (personally) attend to his cultivation, his land will behave like an angry
    wife and yield him no pleasure.

    1040
    The earth, that kindly dame, will laugh to see,
    Men seated idle pleading poverty.
    The maiden, Earth, will laug h at the sight of those who plead poverty and lead an idle life.

    2.4.10. Poverty

    1041
    You ask what sharper pain than poverty is known;
    Nothing pains more than poverty, save poverty alone.
    There is nothing that afflicts (one) like poverty.

    1042
    Malefactor matchless! poverty destroys
    This worlds and the next worlds joys.
    When cruel poverty comes on, it deprives one of both the present and future (bliss).

    1043
    Importunate desire, which poverty men name,
    Destroys both old descent and goodly fame.
    Hankering poverty destroys at once the greatness of (ones) ancient descent and (the dignity of ones) speech.

    1044
    From penury will spring, mid even those of noble race,
    Oblivion that gives birth to words that bring disgrace.
    Even in those of high birth, poverty will produce the fault of uttering mean words.

    1045
    From poverty, that grievous woe,
    Attendant sorrows plenteous grow.
    The misery of poverty brings in its train many (more) miseries.

    1046
    Though deepest sense, well understood, the poor mans words convey,
    Their sense from memory of mankind will fade away.
    The words of the poor are profitless, though they may be sound in thought and clear in expression.

    1047
    From indigence devoid of virtues grace,
    The mother een that bare, estranged, will turn her face.
    He that is reduced to absolute poverty will be regarded as a stranger even by his own mother.

    1048
    And will it come today as yesterday,
    The grief of want that eats my soul away?
    Is the poverty that almost killed me yesterday, to meet me today too ?

    1049
    Amid the flames sleep may mens eyelids close,
    In poverty the eye knows no repose.
    One may sleep in the midst of fire; but by no means in the midst of poverty.

    1050
    Unless the destitute will utterly themselves deny,
    They cause their neighbours salt and vinegar to die.
    The destitute poor, who do not renounce their bodies, only consume their neighbours salt and water.

    2.4.11. Mendicancy

    1051
    When those you find from whom tis meet to ask,- for aid apply;
    Theirs is the sin, not yours, if they the gift deny.
    If you meet with those that may be begged of, you may beg; (but) if they withhold (their gift) it is their blame and not yours.

    1052
    Even to ask an alms may pleasure give,
    If what you ask without annoyance you receive.
    Even begging may be pleasant, if what is begged for is obtained without grief (to him that begs).

    1053
    The men who nought deny, but know whats due, before their face
    To stand as suppliants affords especial grace.
    There is even a beauty in standing before and begging of those who are liberal in their gifts and
    understand their duty (to beggars).

    1054
    Like giving alms, may even asking pleasant seem,
    From men who of denial never even dream.
    To beg of such as never think of withholding (their charity) even in their dreams, is in fact the same as giving (it oneself);

    1055
    Because on earth the men exist, who never say them nay,
    Men bear to stand before their eyes for help to pray.
    As there are in the world those that give without refusing, there are (also) those that prefer to beg
    by simply standing before them.

    1056
    It those you find from evil of denial free,
    At once all plague of poverty will flee.
    All the evil of begging will be removed at the sight of those who are far from the evil of refusing.

    1057
    If men are found who give and no harsh words of scorn employ,
    The minds of askers, through and through, will thrill with joy.
    Beggars rejoice exceedingly when they behold those who bestow (their alms) with kindness and courtesy.

    1058
    If askers cease, the mighty earth, where cooling fountains flow,
    Will be a stage where wooden puppets come and go.
    If there were no beggars, (the actions done in) the cool wide world would only resemble the movement of a puppet.

    1059
    What glory will there be to men of generous soul,
    When none are found to love the askers role?
    What (praise) would there be to givers (of alms) if there were no beggars to ask for and reveive (them).

    1060
    Askers refused from wrath must stand aloof;
    The plague of poverty itself is ample proof.
    He who begs ought not to be angry (at a refusal); for even the misery of (his own) poverty should be
    a sufficient reason (for so doing).

    2.4.12. The Dread of Mendicancy

    1061
    Ten million-fold tis greater gain, asking no alms to live,
    Even from those, like eyes in worth, who nought concealing gladly give.
    Not to beg (at all) even from those excellent persons who cheerfully give without refusing, will do immense good.

    1062
    If he that shaped the world desires that men should begging go,
    Through lifes long course, let him a wanderer be and perish so.
    If the Creator of the world has decreed even begging as a means of livelihood, may he too go abegging and perish.

    1063
    Nothing is harder than the hardness that will say,
    The plague of penury by asking alms well drive away.
    There is no greater folly than the boldness with which one seeks to remedy the evils of poverty by
    begging (rather than by working).

    1064
    Who neer consent to beg in utmost need, their worth
    Has excellence of greatness that transcends the earth.
    Even the whole world cannot sufficiently praise the dignity that would not beg even in the midst of destitution.

    1065
    Nothing is sweeter than to taste the toil-won cheer,
    Though mess of pottage as tasteless as the water clear.
    Even thin gruel is ambrosia to him who has obtained it by labour.

    1066
    Een if a draught of water for a cow you ask,
    Noughts so distasteful to the tongue as beggars task.
    There is nothing more disgraceful to ones tongue than to use it in begging water even for a cow.

    1067
    One thing I beg of beggars all, If beg ye may,
    Of those who hide their wealth, beg not, I pray.
    I beseech all beggars and say, If you need to beg, never beg of those who give unwillingly.

    1068
    The fragile bark of beggary
    Wrecked on denials rock will lie.
    The unsafe raft of begging will split when it strikes on the rock of refusal.

    1069
    The heart will melt away at thought of beggary,
    With thought of stern repulse twill perish utterly.
    To think of (the evil of) begging is enough to melt ones heart; but to think of refusal is enough to break it.

    1070
    Een as he asks, the shamefaced asker dies;
    Where shall his spirit hide who help denies?
    Saying No to a beggar takes away his life. (but as that very word will kill the refuser) where
    then would the latters life hide itself ?

    2.4.13. Baseness

    1071
    The base resemble men in outward form, I ween;
    But counterpart exact to them Ive never seen.
    The base resemble men perfectly (as regards form); and we have not seen such (exact) resemblance (among any other species).

    1072
    Than those of grateful heart the base must luckier be,
    Their minds from every anxious thought are free!
    The low enjoy more felicity than those who know what is good; for the former are not troubled
    with anxiety (as to the good).

    1073
    The base are as the Gods; they too
    Do ever what they list to do!
    The base resemble the Gods; for the base ac t as they like.

    1074
    When base men those behold of conduct vile,
    They straight surpass them, and exulting smile.
    The base feels proud when he sees persons whose acts meaner than his own.

    1075
    Fear is the base mans virtue; if that fail,
    Intense desire some little may avail.
    (The principle of) behaviour in the mean is chiefly fear; if not, hope of gain, to some extent.

    1076
    The base are like the beaten drum; for, when they hear
    The sound the secret out in every neighbours ear.
    The base are like a drum that is beaten, for they unburden to others the secrets they have heard.

    1077
    From off their moistened hands no clinging grain they shake,
    Unless to those with clenched fist their jaws who break.
    The mean will not (even) shake off (what sticks to) their hands (soon after a meal) to any but those
    who would break their jaws with their clenched fists.

    1078
    The good to those will profit yield fair words who use;
    The base, like sugar-cane, will profit those who bruise.
    The great bestow (their alms) as soon as they are informed; (but) the mean, like the sugar-cane,
    only when they are tortured to death.

    1079
    If neighbours clothed and fed he see, the base
    Is mighty man some hidden fault to trace?
    The base will bring an evil (accusation) against others, as soon as he sees them (enjoying) good food and clothing.

    1080
    For what is base man fit, if griefs assail?
    Himself to offer, there and then, for sale!
    The base will hasten to sell themselves as soon as a calamity has befallen them. For what else are they fitted ?

    PART III. LOVE

    3.1 . The Pre-marital love

    3.1. 1 Mental Disturbance caused by the Beauty of the Princess

    1081
    Goddess? or peafowl rare? She whose ears rich jewels wear,
    Is she a maid of human kind? All wildered is my mind!
    Is this jewelled female a celestial, a choice peahen, or a human being ? My mind is perplexed.

    1082
    She of the beaming eyes, To my rash look her glance replies,
    As if the matchless goddess hand Led forth an armed band.
    This female beauty returning my looks is like a celestial maiden coming with an army to contend against me.

    1083
    Deaths form I formerly Knew not; but now tis plain to me;
    He comes in lovely maidens guise, With soul-subduing eyes.
    I never knew before what is called Yama; I see it now; it is the eyes that carry on a great fight with (the help of) female qualities.

    1084
    In sweet simplicity, A womans gracious form hath she;
    But yet those eyes, that drink my life, Are with the form at strife!
    These eyes that seem to kill those who look at them are as it were in hostilities with this feminine simplicity.

    1085
    The light that on me gleams, Is it deaths dart? or eyes bright beams?
    Or fawns shy glance? All three appear In form of maiden here.
    Is it Yama, (a pair of) eyes or a hind ?- Are not all these three in the looks of this maid ?

    1086
    If cruel eye-brows bow, Unbent, would veil those glances now;
    The shafts that wound this trembling heart Her eyes no more would dart.
    Her eyes will cause (me) no trembling sorrow, if they are properly hidden by her cruel arched eye-brows.

    1087
    As veil oer angry eyes Of raging elephant that lies,
    The silken cinctures folds invest This maidens panting breast.
    The cloth that covers the firm bosom of this maiden is (like) that which covers the eyes of a rutting elephant.

    1088
    Ah! woe is me! my might, That awed my foemen in the fight,
    By lustre of that beaming brow Borne down, lies broken now!
    On her bright brow alone is destroyed even th at power of mine that used to terrify the most fearless foes in the battlefield.

    1089
    Like tender fawns her eye; Clothed on is she with modesty;
    What added beauty can be lent; By alien ornament?
    Of what use are other jewels to her who is adorned with modesty, and the meek looks of a hind ?

    1090
    The palm-trees fragrant wine, To those who taste yields joys divine;
    But love hath rare felicity For those that only see!
    Unlike boiled honey which yields delight only when it is drunk, love gives pleasure even when looked at.

    3.1.2. Recognition of the Signs (of Mutual Love)

    1091
    A double witchery have glances of her liquid eye;
    One glance is glance that brings me pain; the other heals again.
    There are two looks in the dyed eyes of this (fair one); one causes pain, and the other is the cure thereof.

    1092
    The furtive glance, that gleams one instant bright,
    Is more than half of loves supreme delight.
    A single stolen glance of her eyes is more than half the pleasure (of sexual embrace).

    1093
    She looked, and looking drooped her head:
    On springing shoot of love its water shed!
    She has looked (at men) and stooped (her head); and that (sign) waters as it were (the corn of) our love.

    1094
    I look on her: her eyes are on the ground the while:
    I look away: she looks on me with timid smile.
    When I look, she looks down; when I do not, she looks and smiles gently.

    1095
    She seemed to see me not; but yet the maid
    Her love, by smiling side-long glance, betrayed.
    She not only avoids a direct look at me, but looks as it were with a half-closed eye and smiles.

    1096
    Though with their lips affection they disown,
    Yet, when they hate us not, tis quickly known.
    Though they may speak harshly as if they were strangers, the words of the friendly are soon understood.

    1097
    The slighting words that anger feign, while eyes their love reveal.
    Are signs of those that love, but would their love conceal.
    Little words that are harsh and looks that are hateful are (but) the expressions of lovers who wish to act like strangers.

    1098
    I gaze, the tender maid relents the while;
    And, oh the matchless grace of that soft smile!
    When I look, the pitying maid looks in return and smiles gently; and that is a comforting sign for me.

    1099
    The look indifferent, that would its love disguise,
    Is only read aright by lovers eyes.
    Both the lovers are capable of looking at each other in an ordinary way, as if they were perfect strangers.

    1100
    When eye to answering eye reveals the tale of love,
    All words that lips can say must useless prove.
    The words of the mouths are of no use whatever, when there is perfect agreement between the eyes (of lovers).

    3.1.3. Rejoicing in the Embrace

    1101
    All joys that senses five- sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch- can give,
    In this resplendent armlets-bearing damsel live!
    The (simultaneous) enjoyment of the five senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch can only
    be found with bright braceleted (women).

    1102
    Disease and medicine antagonists we surely see;
    This maid, to pain she gives, herself is remedy.
    The remedy for a disease is always something different (from it); but for the disease caused by this
    jewelled maid, she is herself the cure.

    1103
    Than rest in her soft arms to whom the soul is givn,
    Is any sweeter joy in his, the Lotus-eyed-ones heaven?
    Can the lotus-eyed Vishnus heaven be indeed as sweet to those who delight to sleep in the delicate arms of their beloved ?

    1104
    Withdraw, it burns; approach, it soothes the pain;
    Whence did the maid this wondrous fi re obtain?
    From whence has she got this fire that burns when I withdraw and cools when I approach ?

    1105
    In her embrace, whose locks with flowery wreaths are bound,
    Each varied form of joy the soul can wish is found.
    The shoulders of her whose locks are adorned with flowers delight me as if they were the very sweets I have desired (to get).

    1106
    Ambrosia are the simple maidens arms; when I attain
    Their touch, my withered life puts forth its buds again!
    The shoulders of this fair one are made of ambrosia, for they revive me with pleasure every time I embrace them.

    1107
    As when one eats from household store, with kindly grace
    Sharing his meal: such is this golden maids embrace.
    The embraces of a gold-complexioned beautiful female are as pleasant as to dwell in ones own house and
    live by ones own (earnings) after distributing (a portion of it in charity).

    1108
    Sweet is the strict embrace of those whom fond affection binds,
    Where no dissevering breath of discord entrance finds.
    To ardent lovers sweet is the embrace that cannot be penetrated even by a breath of breeze.

    1109
    The jealous variance, the healing of the strife, reunion gained:
    These are the fruits from wedded love obtained.
    Love quarrel, reconciliation and intercourse - these are the advantages reaped by those who marry for lust.

    1110
    The more men learn, the more their lack of learning they detect;
    Tis so when I approach the maid with gleaming jewels decked.
    As (ones) ignorance is discovered the more one learns, so does repeated intercourse with a well-adorned
    female (only create a desire for more).

    3.1.4. The Praise of her Beauty

    1111
    O flower of the sensitive plant! than thee
    More tenders the maiden beloved by me.
    May you flourish, O Anicham! you have a delicate nature. But my beloved is more delicate than you.

    1112
    You deemed, as you saw the flowers, her eyes were as flowers, my soul,
    That many may see; it was surely some folly that over you stole!
    O my soul, fancying that flowers which are seen by many can resemble her eyes, you become confused at the sight of them.

    1113
    As tender shoot her frame; teeth, pearls; around her odours blend;
    Darts are the eyes of her whose shoulders like the bambu bend.
    The complexion of this bamboo-shouldered one is that of a shoot; her teeth, are pearls; her breath, fragrance;
    and her dyed eyes, lances.

    1114
    The lotus, seeing her, with head demiss, the ground would eye,
    And say, With eyes of her, rich gems who wears, we cannot vie.
    If the blue lotus could see, it would stoop and look at the ground saying, I can never resemble the
    eyes of this excellent jewelled one.

    1115
    The flowers of the sensitive plant as a girdle around her she placed;
    The stems she forgot to nip off; they ll weigh down the delicate waist.
    No merry drums will be beaten for the (tender) waist of her who has adorned herself with the anicham
    without having removed its stem.

    1116
    The stars perplexed are rushing wildly from their spheres;
    For like another moon this maidens face appears.
    The stars have become confused in their places not being able to distinguish between the moon and
    the maids countenance.

    1117
    In moon, that waxing waning shines, as sports appear,
    Are any spots discerned in face of maiden here?
    Could there be spots in the face of this maid like those in the bright full moon ?

    1118
    Farewell, O moon! If that thine orb could shine
    Bright as her face, thou shouldst be love of mine.
    If you can indeed shine like the face of women, flourish, O moon, for then would you be worth loving ?

    1119
    If as her face, whose eyes are flowers, thou wou ldst have charms for me,
    Shine for my eyes alone, O moon, shine not for all to see!
    O moon, if you wish to resemble the face of her whose eyes are like (these) flowers, do not appear so as to be seen by all.

    1120
    The flower of the sensitive plant, and the down on the swans white breast,
    As the thorn are harsh, by the delicate feet of this maiden pressed.
    The anicham and the feathers of the swan are to the feet of females, like the fruit of the (thorny) Nerunji.

    3.1.5. Declaration of Loves special Excellence

    1121
    The dew on her white teeth, whose voice is soft and low,
    Is as when milk and honey mingled flow.
    The water which oozes from the white teeth of this soft speeched damsel is like a mixture of milk and honey.

    1122
    Between this maid and me the friendship kind
    Is as the bonds that soul and body bind.
    The love between me and this damsel is like the union of body and soul.

    1123
    For her with beauteous brow, the maid I love, there place is none;
    To give her image room, O pupil of mine eye, begone!
    O you image in the pupil (of my eye)! depart; there is no room for (my) fair-browed beloved.

    1124
    Life is she to my very soul when she draws nigh;
    Dissevered from the maid with jewels rare, I die!
    My fair-jewelled one resembles the living soul (when she is in union with me), the dying soul when she leaves me.

    1125
    I might recall, if I could once forget; but from my heart
    Her charms fade not, whose eyes gleam like the warriors dart.
    If I had forgotten her who has bright battling eyes, I would have remembered (thee);
    but I never forget her. (Thus says he to her maid).

    1126
    My loved ones subtle form departs not from my eyes;
    I wink them not, lest I should pain him where he lies.
    My lover would not depart from mine eyes; even if I wink, he would not suffer (from pain); he is so ethereal.

    1127
    My love doth ever in my eyes reside;
    I stain them not, fearing his form to hide.
    As my lover abides in my eyes, I will not even paint them, for he would (then) have to conceal himself.

    1128
    Within my heart my lover dwells; from food I turn
    That smacks of heat, lest he should feel it burn.
    As my lover is in my heart, I am afraid of eating (anything) hot, for I know it would pain him.

    1129
    I fear his form to hide, nor close my eyes:
    Her love estranged is gone! the village cries.
    I will not wink, knowing that if I did, my lover would hide himself; and for this reason, this town says,
    he is unloving.

    1130
    Rejoicing in my very soul he ever lies;
    Her love estranged is gone far off! the village cries.
    My lover dwells in my heart with perpetual delight; but the town says he is unloving and (therefore) dwells afar.

    3.1.6. The Abandonment of Reserve

    1131
    To those who ve proved loves joy, and now afflicted mourn,
    Except the helpful horse of palm, no other strength remains.
    To those who after enjoyment of sexual pleasure suffer (for want of more), there is no help
    so efficient as the palmyra horse.

    1132
    My body and my soul, that can no more endure,
    Will lay reserve aside, and mount the horse of palm.
    Having got rid of shame, the suffering body and soul save themselves on the palmyra horse.

    1133
    I once retained reserve and seemly manliness;
    To-day I nought possess but lovers horse of palm.
    Modesty and manliness were once my own; now, my own is the palmyra horse that is ridden by the lustful.

    1134
    Loves rushing tide will sweep away the raft
    Of seemly manliness and shame combined.
    The raft of modesty and manliness, is, alas, carried-off by the strong current of lust.

    11 35
    The maid that slender armlets wears, like flowers entwined,
    Has brought me horse of palm, and pangs of eventide!
    She with the small garland-like bracelets has given me the palmyra horse and the sorrow that is endured at night.

    1136
    Of climbing horse of palm in midnight hour, I think;
    My eyes know no repose for that same simple maid.
    Mine eyes will not close in sleep on your mistresss account; even at midnight will I think of
    mounting the palmyra horse.

    1137
    Theres nought of greater worth than womans long-enduring soul,
    Who, vexed by love like ocean waves, climbs not the horse of palm.
    There is nothing so noble as the womanly nature that would not ride the palmyra horse,
    though plunged a sea of lust.

    1138
    In virtue hard to move, yet very tender, too, are we;
    Love deems not so, would rend the veil, and court publicity!
    Even the Lust (of women) transgresses its secrecy and appears in public, forgetting that they
    are too chaste and liberal (to be overcome by it).

    1139
    Theres no one knows my heart, so says my love,
    And thus, in public ways, perturbed will rove.
    My lust, feeling that it is not known by all, reels confused in the streets (of this town).

    1140
    Before my eyes the foolish make a mock of me,
    Because they neer endured the pangs I now must drie.
    Even strangers laugh (at us) so as to be seen by us, for they have not suffered.

    3.1.7. The Announcement of the Rumour

    1141
    By this same rumours rise, my precious life stands fast;
    Good fortune grant the many know this not!
    My precious life is saved by the raise of rumour, and this, to my good luck no others are aware of.

    1142
    The village hath to us this rumour givn, that makes her mine;
    Unweeting all the rareness of the maid with flower-like eyne.
    Not knowing the value of her whose eyes are like flowers this town has got up a rumour about me.

    1143
    The rumour spread within the town, is it not gain to me?
    It is as though that were obtained that may not be.
    Will I not get a rumour that is known to the (whole) town ? For what I have not got is as if I had got it (already).

    1144
    The rumour rising makes my love to rise;
    My love would lose its power and languish otherwise.
    Rumour increases the violence of my passion; without it it would grow weak and waste away.

    1145
    The more man drinks, the more he ever drunk would be;
    The more my loves revealed, the sweeter tis to me!
    As drinking liquor is delightful (to one) whenever one is in mirth, so is lust delightful to me
    whenever it is the subject of rumour.

    1146
    I saw him but one single day: rumour spreads soon
    As darkness, when the dragon seizes on the moon.
    It was but a single day that I looked on (my lover); but the rumour thereof has spread like the seizure of the moon by the serpent.

    1147
    My anguish grows apace: the towns report
    Manures it; my mothers word doth water it.
    This malady (of lust) is manured by the talk of women and watered by the (harsh) words of my mother.

    1148
    With butter-oil extinguish fire! Twill prove
    Harder by scandal to extinguish love.
    To say that one could extinguish passion by rumour is like extinguishing fire with ghee.

    1149
    When he who said Fear not! hath left me blamed,
    While many shrink, can I from rumour hide ashamed?
    When the departure of him who said fear not has put me to shame before others, why need
    I be ashamed of scandal.

    1150
    If we desire, who loves will grant what we require;
    This town sends forth the rumour we desire!
    The rumour I desire is raised by the town (itself); and my lover would if desired consent (to my following him).

    3.2 The Post-marital love

    3.2.1. Separation unendurable

    1151
    If you will say, I leave thee not, then tell me so;
    Of quick return tell those that can survive this woe.
    If it is not departure, tell me; but if it is your speedy return, tell it to those who would be alive then.

    1152
    It once was perfect joy to look upon his face;
    But now the fear of parting saddens each embrace.
    His very look was once pleasing; but (now) even intercourse is painful through fear of separation.

    1153
    To trust henceforth is hard, if ever he depart,
    Een he, who knows his promise and my breaking heart.
    As even the lover who understands (everything) may at times depart, confidence is hardly possible.

    1154
    If he depart, who fondly said, Fear not, what blames incurred
    By those who trusted to his reassuring word?
    If he who bestowed his love and said fear not should depart, will it be the fault of those
    who believed in (his) assuring words ?

    1155
    If you would guard my life, from going him restrain
    Who fills my life! If he depart, hardly we meet again.
    If you would save (my life), delay the departure of my destined (husband); for if he departs,
    intercourse will become impossible.

    1156
    To cherish longing hope that he should ever gracious be,
    Is hard, when he could stand, and of departure speak to me.
    If he is so cruel as to mention his departure (to me), the hope that he would bestow (his love) must be given up.

    1157
    The bracelet slipping from my wrist announced before
    Departure of the Prince that rules the ocean shore.
    Do not the rings that begin to slide down my fingers forebode the separation of my lord ?

    1158
    Tis sad to sojourn in the town where no kind kinsmen dwell;
    Tis sadder still to bid a friend beloved farewell.
    Painful is it to live in a friendless town; but far more painful is it to part from ones lover.

    1159
    Fire burns the hands that touch; but smart of love
    Will burn in hearts that far away remove.
    Fire burns when touched; but, like the sickness of love, can it also burn when removed ?

    1160
    Sorrows sadness meek sustaining, Driving sore distress away,
    Separation uncomplaining Many bear the livelong day!
    As if there were many indeed that can consent to the impossible, kill their pain, endure
    separation and yet continue to live afterwards.

    3.2.2. Complainings

    1161
    I would my pain conceal, but see! it surging swells,
    As streams to those that draw from ever-springing wells.
    I would hide this pain from others; but it (only) swells like a spring to those who drain it.

    1162
    I cannot hide this pain of mine, yet shame restrains
    When I would tell it out to him who caused my pains.
    I cannot conceal this pain, nor can I relate it without shame to him who has caused it.

    1163
    My soul, like porters pole, within my wearied frame,
    Sustains a two-fold burthen poised, of love and shame.
    (Both) lust and shame, with my soul for their shoulder pole balance themselves on a
    body that cannot bear them.

    1164
    A sea of love, tis true, I see stretched out before,
    But not the trusty bark that wafts to yonder shore.
    There is indeed a flood of lust; but there is no raft of safety to cross it with.

    1165
    Who work us woe in friendships trustful hour,
    What will they prove when angry tempests lower?
    He who can produce sorrow from friendship, what can he not bring forth out of enmity ?

    1166
    A happy love s sea of joy; but mightier sorrows roll
    From unpropitious love athwart the troubled soul.
    The pleasure of lust is (as great as) the sea; but the pain of lu st is far greater.

    1167
    I swim the cruel tide of love, and can no shore descry,
    In watches of the night, too, mid the waters, only I!
    I have swam across the terrible flood of lust, but have not seen its shore; even at midnight I am alone; still I live.

    1168
    All living souls in slumber soft she steeps;
    But me alone kind night for her companing keeps!
    The night which graciously lulls to sleep all living creatures, has me alone for her companion.

    1169
    More cruel than the cruelty of him, the cruel one,
    In these sad times are lengthening hours of night I watch alone.
    The long nights of these days are far more cruel than the heartless one who is torturing me.

    1170
    When eye of mine would as my soul go forth to him,
    It knows not how through floods of its own tears to swim.
    Could mine eyes travel like my thoughts to the abode (of my absent lord), they would not swim in this flood of tears.

    3.2.3. Eyes consumed with Grief

    1171
    They showed me him, and then my endless pain
    I saw: why then should weeping eyes complain?
    As this incurable malady has been caused by my eyes which showed (him) to me, why should they now weep for (him).

    1172
    How glancing eyes, that rash unweeting looked that day,
    With sorrow measureless are wasting now away!
    The dyed eyes that (then) looked without foresight, why should they now endure sorrow,
    without feeling sharply (their own fault).

    1173
    The eyes that threw such eager glances round erewhile
    Are weeping now. Such folly surely claims a smile!
    They themselves looked eagerly (on him) and now they weep. Is not this to be laughed at ?

    1174
    Those eyes have wept till all the fount of tears is dry,
    That brought upon me pain that knows no remedy.
    These painted eyes have caused me a lasting mortal disease; and now they can weep no more,
    the tears having dried up.

    1175
    The eye that wrought me more than sea could hold of woes,
    Is suffering pangs that banish all repose.
    Mine eyes have caused me a lust that is greater than the sea and (they themselves) endure
    the torture of sleeplessness.

    1176
    Oho! how sweet a thing to see! the eye
    That wrought this pain, in the same gulf doth lie.
    The eyes that have given me this disease have themselves been seized with this (suffering).
    Oh! I am much delighted.

    1177
    Aching, aching, let those exhaust their stream,
    That melting, melting, that day gazed on him.
    The eyes that became tender and gazed intently on him, may they suffer so much as to dry up
    the fountain of their tears.

    1178
    Who loved me once, onloving now doth here remain;
    Not seeing him, my eye no rest can gain.
    He is indeed here who loved me with his lips but not with his heart but mine eyes suffer from not seeing him.

    1179
    When he comes not, all slumber flies; no sleep when he is there;
    Thus every way my eyes have troubles hard to bear.
    When he is away they do not sleep; when he is present they do not sleep; in either case, mine eyes
    endure unbearable agony.

    1180
    It is not hard for all the town the knowledge to obtain,
    When eyes, as mine, like beaten tambours, make the mystery plain.
    It is not difficult for the people of this place to understand the secret of those whose eyes, like mine,
    are as it were beaten drums.

    3.2.4. The Pallid Hue

    1181
    I willed my lover absent should remain;
    Of pinings sickly hue to whom shall I complain?
    I who (then) consented to the absence of my loving lord, to whom can I (now) relate the fact
    of my having turned sallow.

    1182
    He gave: this sickly hue thus proudly speaks,
    Then climbs, and all my frame its chariot makes. < br> Sallowness, as if proud of having been
    caused by him, would now ride on my person.

    1183
    Of comeliness and shame he me bereft,
    While pain and sickly hue, in recompense, he left.
    He has taken (away) my beauty and modesty, and given me instead disease and sallowness.

    1184
    I meditate his words, his worth is theme of all I say,
    This sickly hue is false that would my trust betray.
    I think (of him); and what I speak about is but his excellence; still is there sallowness; and this is
    deceitful.

    1185
    My lover there went forth to roam;
    This pallor of my frame usurps his place at home.
    Just as my lover departed then, did not sallowness spread here on my person ?

    1186
    As darkness waits till lamp expires, to fill the place,
    This pallor waits till I enjoy no more my lords embrace.
    Just as darkness waits for the failing light; so does sallowness wait for the laxity of my husbands intercourse.

    1187
    I lay in his embrace, I turned unwittingly;
    Forthwith this hue, as you might grasp it, came on me.
    I who was in close embrace just turned aside and the moment I did so, sallowness came on me
    like something to be seized on.

    1188
    On me, because I pine, they cast a slur;
    But no one says, He first deserted her.
    Besides those who say she has turned sallow there are none who say he has forsaken her.

    1189
    Well! let my frame, as now, be sicklied oer with pain,
    If he who won my hearts consent, in good estate remain!
    If he is clear of guilt who has conciliated me (to his departure) let my body suffer its due and turn sallow.

    1190
    Tis well, though men deride me for my sickly hue of pain;
    If they from calling him unkind, who won my love, refrain.
    It would be good to be said of me that I have turned sallow, if friends do not reproach with
    unkindness him who pleased me (then).

    3.2.5. The Solitary Anguish

    1191
    The bliss to be beloved by those they love who gains,
    Of love the stoneless, luscious fruit obtains.
    The women who are beloved by those whom they love, have they have not got the stone-less
    fruit of sexual delight ?

    1192
    As heaven on living men showers blessings from above,
    Is tender grace by lovers shown to those they love.
    The bestowal of love by the beloved on those who love them is like the rain raining
    (at the proper season) on those who live by it.

    1193
    Who love and are beloved to them alone
    Belongs the boast, Weve made lifes very joys our own.
    The pride that says we shall live suits only those who are loved by their beloved (husbands).

    1194
    Those well-beloved will luckless prove,
    Unless beloved by those they love.
    Even those who are esteemed (by other women) are devoid of excellence, if they are not loved by their beloved.

    1195
    From him I love to me what gain can be,
    Unless, as I love him, he loveth me?
    He who is beloved by me, what will he do to me, if I am not beloved by him ?

    1196
    Love on one side is bad; like balanced load
    By porter borne, love on both sides is good.
    Lust, like the weight of the KAVADI, pains if it lies in one end only but pleases if it is in both.

    1197
    While Kaman rushes straight at me alone,
    Is all my pain and wasting grief unknown?
    Would not cupid who abides and contends in one party (only) witness the pain and sorrow (in that party)?

    1198
    Who hear from lovers lips no pleasant word from day to day,
    Yet in the world live out their life,- no braver souls than they!
    There is no one in the world so hard-hearted as those who can live without receiving (even) a kind
    word from their beloved.

    1199
    Though he my heart desires no grace accords to me,
    Yet every accent of his voice is melody.
    Though my beloved bestows no love on one, still are his words sweet to my ears.

    1200
    Tell him thy pain that loves not thee?
    Farewell, my soul, fill up the sea!
    Live, O my soul, would you who relate your great sorrow to strangers, try rather to fill up your own sea (of sorrow).

    3.2.6. Sad Memories

    1201
    From thought of her unfailing gladness springs,
    Sweeter than palm-rice wine the joy love brings.
    Sexuality is sweeter than liquor, because when remembered, it creates a most rapturous delight.

    1202
    How great is love! Behold its sweetness past belief!
    Think on the lover, and the spirit knows no grief.
    Even to think of ones beloved gives one no pain. Sexuality, in any degree, is always delightful.

    1203
    A fit of sneezing threatened, but it passed away;
    He seemed to think of me, but do his fancies stray?
    I feel as if I am going to sneeze but do not, and (therefore) my beloved is about to think (of me) but does not.

    1204
    Have I a place within his heart!
    From mine, alas! he never doth depart.
    He continues to abide in my soul, do I likewise abide in his ?

    1205
    Me from his heart he jealously excludes:
    Hath he no shame who ceaseless on my heart intrudes?
    He who has imprisoned me in his soul, is he ashamed to enter incessantly into mine.

    1206
    How live I yet? I live to ponder oer
    The days of bliss with him that are no more.
    I live by remembering my (former) intercourse with him; if it were not so, how could I live ?

    1207
    If I remembered not what were I then? And yet,
    The fiery smart of what my spirit knows not to forget!
    I have never forgotten (the pleasure); even to think of it burns my soul; could I live, if I should ever forget it ?

    1208
    My frequent thought no wrath excites. It is not so?
    This honour doth my love on me bestow.
    He will not be angry however much I may think of him; is it not so much the delight my beloved affords me ?

    1209
    Dear life departs, when his ungracious deeds I ponder oer,
    Who said erewhile, Were one for evermore.
    My precious life is wasting away by thinking too much on the cruelty of him who said we were not different.

    1210
    Set not; so mayst thou prosper, moon! that eyes may see
    My love who went away, but ever bides with me.
    May you live, O Moon! Do not set, that I mine see him who has departed without quitting my soul.

    3.2.7. The Visions of the Night

    1211
    It came and brought to me, that nightly vision rare,
    A message from my love,- what feast shall I prepare?
    Where with shall I feast the dream which has brought me my dear ones messenger ?

    1212
    If my dark, carp-like eye will close in sleep, as I implore,
    The tale of my long-suffering life Ill tell my loved one oer.
    If my fish-like painted eyes should, at my begging, close in sleep, I could fully relate my sufferings to my lord.

    1213
    Him, who in waking hour no kindness shows,
    In dreams I see; and so my lifetime goes!
    My life lasts because in my dream I behold him who does not favour me in my waking hours.

    1214
    Some pleasure I enjoy when him who loves not me
    In waking hours, the vision searches out and makes me see.
    There is pleasure in my dream, because in it I seek and obtain him who does not visit me in my wakefulness.

    1215
    As what I then beheld in waking hour was sweet,
    So pleasant dreams in hour of sleep my spirit greet.
    I saw him in my waking hours, and then it was pleasant; I see him just now in my dream, and it is (equally) pleasant.

    1216
    And if there were no waking hour, my love
    In d reams would never from my side remove.
    Were there no such thing as wakefulness, my beloved (who visited me) in my dream would not depart from me.

    1217
    The cruel one, in waking hour, who all ungracious seems,
    Why should he thus torment my soul in nightly dreams?
    The cruel one who would not favour me in my wakefulness, what right has he to torture me in my dreams?

    1218
    And when I sleep he holds my form embraced;
    And when I wake to fill my heart makes haste!
    When I am asleep he rests on my shoulders, (but) when I awake he hastens into my soul.

    1219
    In dreams who neer their lovers form perceive,
    For those in waking hours who show no love will grieve.
    They who have no dear ones to behold in their dreams blame him who visits me not in my waking hours.

    1220
    They say, that he in waking hours has left me lone;
    In dreams they surely see him not,- these people of the town;
    The women of this place say he has forsaken me in my wakefulness. I think they have not
    seen him visit me in my dreams.

    3.2.8. Lamentations at Eventide

    1221
    Thou art not evening, but a spear that doth devour
    The souls of brides; farewell, thou evening hour!
    Live, O you evening are you (the former) evening? No, you are the season that slays (married) women.

    1222
    Thine eye is sad; Hail, doubtful hour of eventide!
    Of cruel eye, as is my spouse, is too thy bride?
    A long life to you, O dark evening! You are sightless. Is your help-mate (also) as hard-hearted as mine.

    1223
    With buds of chilly dew wan evenings shade enclose;
    My anguish buds space and all my sorrow grows.
    The evening that (once) came in with trembling and dimness (now) brings me an aversion
    for life and increasing sorrow.

    1224
    When absent is my love, the evening hour descends,
    As when an alien host to field of battle wends.
    In the absence of my lover, evening comes in like slayers on the field of slaughter.

    1225
    O morn, how have I won thy grace? thou bringst relief
    O eve, why art thou foe! thou dost renew my grief.
    What good have I done to morning (and) what evil to evening?

    1226
    The pangs that evening brings I never knew,
    Till he, my wedded spouse, from me withdrew.
    Previous to my husbands departure, I know not the painful nature of evening.

    1227
    My grief at morn a bud, all day an opening flower,
    Full-blown expands in evening hour.
    This malady buds forth in the morning, expands all day long and blossoms in the evening.

    1228
    The shepherds pipe is like a murderous weapon, to my ear,
    For it proclaims the hour of evnings fiery anguish near.
    The shepherds flute now sounds as a fiery forerunner of night, and is become a weapon that slays (me).

    1229
    If evenings shades, that darken all my soul, extend;
    From this afflicted town will would of grief ascend.
    When night comes on confusing (everyones) mind, the (whole) town will lose its sense and be plunged in sorrow.

    1230
    This darkening eve, my darkling soul must perish utterly;
    Remembering him who seeks for wealth, but seeks not me.
    My (hitherto) unextinguished life is now lost in this bewildering night at the thought of him who
    has the nature of wealth.

    3.2.9. Wasting Away

    1231
    Thine eyes grown dim are now ashamed the fragrant flowrs to see,
    Thinking on him, who wandring far, leaves us in misery.
    While we endure the unbearable sorrow, your eyes weep for him who is gone afar, and shun (the
    sight of) fragrant flowers.

    1232
    The eye, with sorrow wan, all wet with dew of tears,
    As witness of the lovers lack of love appears.
    The discoloured eyes that shed tears p rofusely seem to betray the unkindness of our beloved.

    1233
    These withered arms, desertions pangs abundantly display,
    That swelled with joy on that glad nuptial day.
    The shoulders that swelled on the day of our union (now) seem to announce our separation clearly (to the public).

    1234
    When lover went, then faded all their wonted charms,
    And armlets golden round slips off from these poor wasted arms.
    In the absence of your consort, your shoulders having lost their former beauty and fulness,
    your bracelets of pure gold have become loose.

    1235
    These wasted arms, the bracelet with their wonted beauty gone,
    The cruelty declare of that most cruel one.
    The (loosened) bracelets, and the shoulders from which the old beauty has faded, relate the cruelty of the pitiless one.

    1236
    I grieve, tis pain to me to hear him cruel chid,
    Because the armlet from my wasted arm has slid.
    I am greatly pained to hear you call him a cruel man, just because your shoulders are reduced and your bracelets loosened.

    1237
    My heart! say ought of glory wilt thou gain,
    If to that cruel one thou of thy wasted arms complain?
    Can you O my soul! gain glory by relating to the (so-called) cruel one the clamour of my fading shoulders?

    1238
    One day the fervent pressure of embracing arms I checked,
    Grew wan the forehead of the maid with golden armlet decked.
    When I once loosened the arms that were in embrace, the forehead of the gold-braceleted women turned sallow.

    1239
    As we embraced a breath of wind found entrance there;
    The maids large liquid eyes were dimmed with care.
    When but a breath of breeze penetrated our embrace, her large cool eyes became sallow.

    1240
    The dimness of her eye felt sorrow now,
    Beholding what was done by that bright brow.
    Was it at the sight of what the bright forehead had done that the sallowness of her eyes became sad?

    3.2.10. Soliloquy

    1241
    My heart, canst thou not thinking of some medcine tell,
    Not any one, to drive away this grief incurable?
    O my soul, will you not think and tell me some medicine be it what it may, that can cure this incurable malady?

    1242
    Since he loves not, thy smart
    Is folly, fare thee well my heart!
    May you live, O my soul! While he is without love, for you to suffer is (simple) folly.

    1243
    What comes of sitting here in pining thought, O heart? He knows
    No pitying thought, the cause of all these wasting woes.
    O my soul! why remain (here) and suffer thinking (of him)? There are no lewd thoughts (of you) in
    him who has caused you this disease of sorrow.

    1244
    O rid me of these eyes, my heart; for they,
    Longing to see him, wear my life away.
    O my soul! take my eyes also with you, (if not), these would eat me up (in their desire) to see him.

    1245
    O heart, as a foe, can I abandon utterly
    Him who, though I long for him, longs not for me?
    O my soul! can he who loves not though he is beloved, be forsaken saying he hates me (now)?

    1246
    My heart, false is the fire that burns; thou canst not wrath maintain,
    If thou thy love behold, embracing, soothing all thy pain.
    O my soul! when you see the dear one who remove dislike by intercourse, you are displeased and
    continue to be so. Nay, your displeasure is (simply) false.

    1247
    Or bid thy love, or bid thy shame depart;
    For me, I cannot bear them both, my worthy heart!
    O my good soul, give up either lust or honour, as for me I can endure neither.

    1248
    Thou art befooled, my heart, thou followest him who flees from thee;
    And still thou yearning criest: He will nor pity show nor love to me.
    You are a fool, O my soul! to go after my departed one, while you mourn that he is not kind enough to favour you.

    1249
    My heart! my lover lives within my mind;
    Roaming, whom dost thou think to find?
    O my soul! to whom would you repair, while the dear one is within yourself?

    1250
    If I should keep in mind the man who utterly renounces me,
    My soul must suffer further loss of dignity.
    If I retain in my heart him who has left me without befriending me, I shall lose even the (inward) beauty that remains.

    3.2.11. Reserve Overcome

    1251
    Of womanly reserve loves axe breaks through the door,
    Barred by the bolt of shame before.
    The axe of lust can break the door of chastity which is bolted with the bolt of modesty.

    1252
    What men call love is the one thing of merciless power;
    It gives my soul no rest, een in the midnight hour.
    Even at midnight is my mind worried by lust, and this one thing, alas! is without mercy.

    1253
    I would my love conceal, but like a sneeze
    It shows itself, and gives no warning sign.
    I would conceal my lust, but alas, it yields not to my will but breaks out like a sneeze.

    1254
    In womanly reserve I deemed myself beyond assail;
    But love will come abroad, and casts away the veil.
    I say I would be firm, but alas, my malady breaks out from its concealment and appears in public.

    1255
    The dignity that seeks not him who acts as foe,
    Is the one thing that loving heart can never know.
    The dignity that would not go after an absent lover is not known to those who are sticken by love.

    1256
    My grief how full of grace, I pray you see!
    It seeks to follow him that hateth me.
    The sorrow I have endured by desiring to go after my absent lover, in what way is it excellent?

    1257
    No sense of shame my gladdened mind shall prove,
    When he returns my longing heart to bless with love.
    I know nothing like shame when my beloved does from love (just) what is desired (by me).

    1258
    The words of that deceiver, versed in every wily art,
    Are instruments that break through every guard of womans heart!
    Are not the enticing words of my trick-abounding roguish lover the weapon that breaks away my feminine firmness?

    1259
    I ll shun his greeting; saying thus with pride away I went:
    I held him in my arms, for straight I felt my heart relent.
    I said I would feign dislike and so went (away); (but) I embraced him the moment I say my mind began to unite with him!

    1260
    We ll stand aloof and then embrace: is this for them to say,
    Whose hearts are as the fat that in the blaze dissolves away?
    Is it possible for those whose hearts melt like fat in the fire to say they can feign a strong dislike and remain so?

    3.2.12. Mutual Desire

    1261
    My eyes have lost their brightness, sight is dimmed; my fingers worn,
    With nothing on the wall the days since I was left forlorn.
    My finger has worn away by marking (on the wall) the days he has been absent while my
    eyes have lost their lustre and begin to fail.

    1262
    O thou with gleaming jewels decked, could I forget for this one day,
    Henceforth these bracelets from my arms will slip, my beauty worn away.
    O you bright-jewelled maid, if I forget (him) today, my shoulders will lose their beauty even
    in the other life and make my bracelets loose.

    1263
    On victory intent, His mind sole company he went;
    And I yet life sustain! And long to see his face again!
    I still live by longing for the arrival of him who has gone out of love for victory and with valour as his guide.

    1264
    He comes again, who left my side, and I shall taste loves joy,-
    My heart with rapture swells, when thoughts like these my mind employ.
    My heart is rid of its sorrow and swells with rapture to think of my absent lover returning with his love.

    1265
    O let me see my spouse again and sate these longing eyes!
    That instant from my wasted frame all pallor flies.
    May I look on my lover till I am satisfied and thereafter will vanish the sallowness of my slender shoulders.

    1266
    O let my spouse but come again to me one day!
    Ill drink that nectar: wasting grief shall flee away.
    May my husband return some day; and then will I enjoy (him) so as to destroy all this agonizing sorrow.

    1267
    Shall I draw back, or yield myself, or shall both mingled be,
    When he returns, my spouse, dear as these eyes to me.
    On the return of him who is as dear as my eyes, am I displeased or am I to embrace (him); or am I to do both?

    1268
    O would my king would fight, oercome, devide the spoil;
    At home, to-night, the banquet spread should crown the toil.
    Let the king fight and gain (victories); (but) let me be united to my wife and feast the evening.

    1269
    One day will seem like seven to those who watch and yearn
    For that glad day when wanderers from afar return.
    To those who suffer waiting for the day of return of their distant lovers one day is as long as seven days.

    1270
    Whats my return, the meeting hour, the wished-for greeting worth,
    If she heart-broken lie, with all her life poured forth?
    After (my wife) has died of a broken heart, what good will there be if she is to receive me,
    has received me, or has even embraced me?

    3.2.13. The Reading of the Signs

    1271
    Thou hidst it, yet thine eye, disdaining all restraint,
    Something, I know not, what, would utter of complaint.
    Though you would conceal (your feelings), your painted eyes would not, for, transgressing
    (their bounds), they tell (me) something.

    1272
    The simple one whose beauty fills mine eye, whose shoulders curve
    Like bambu stem, hath all a womans modest sweet reserve.
    Unusually great is the female simplicity of your maid whose beauty fills my eyes and whose
    shoulders resemble the bamboo.

    1273
    As through the crystal beads is seen the thread on which they re strung
    So in her beauty gleams some thought cannot find a tongue.
    There is something that is implied in the beauty of this woman, like the thread that is visible in a garland of gems.

    1274
    As fragrance in the opening bud, some secret lies
    Concealed in budding smile of this dear damsels eyes.
    There is something in the unmatured smile of this maid like the fragrance that is contained in
    an unblossomed bud.

    1275
    The secret wiles of her with thronging armlets decked,
    Are medicines by which my raising grief is checked.
    The well-meant departure of her whose bangles are tight-fitting contains a remedy that can cure my great sorrow.

    1276
    While lovingly embracing me, his heart is only grieved:
    It makes me think that I again shall live of love bereaved.
    The embrace that fills me with comfort and gladness is capable of enduring (my former)
    sorrow and meditating on his want of love.

    1277
    My severance from the lord of this cool shore,
    My very armlets told me long before.
    My bracelets have understood before me the (mental) separation of him who rules the cool seashore.

    1278
    My loved one left me, was it yesterday?
    Days seven my pallid body wastes away!
    It was but yesterday my lover departed (from me); and it is seven days since my complexion turned sallow.

    1279
    She viewed her tender arms, she viewed the armlets from them slid;
    She viewed her feet: all this the lady did.
    She looked at her bracelets, her tender shoulders, and her feet; this was what she did there (significantly).

    1280
    To show by eye the pain of love, and for relief to pray,
    Is womanhoods most womanly device, men say.
    To express their love-sickness by their eyes and resort to begging bespeaks more than ordinary
    female excellence.

    3.2.14. Desire for Reunion

    1281
    Gladness at the thought, rejoicing at the sight,
    Not palm-tree wine, but love, yields such delight.
    To please by thought and cheer by sight is peculiar, not to liquor but lust.

    1282
    When as palmyra tall, fulness of perfect love we gain,
    Distrust can find no place small as the millet grain.
    If women have a lust that exceeds even the measure of the palmyra fruit, they will not desire
    (to feign) dislike even as much as the millet.

    1283
    Although his will his only law, he lightly value me,
    My heart knows no repose unless my lord I see.
    Though my eyes disregard me and do what is pleasing to my husband, still will they not be
    satisfied unless they see him.

    1284
    My friend, I went prepared to show a cool disdain;
    My heart, forgetting all, could not its love restrain.
    O my friend! I was prepared to feign displeasure but my mind forgetting it was ready to embrace him.

    1285
    The eye sees not the rod that paints it; nor can I
    See any fault, when I behold my husband nigh.
    Like the eyes which see not the pencil that paints it, I cannot see my husbands fault (just)
    when I meet him.

    1286
    When him I see, to all his faults I m blind;
    But when I see him not, nothing but faults I find.
    When I see my husband, I do not see any faults; but when I do not see him, I do not see anything but faults.

    1287
    As those of rescue sure, who plunge into the stream,
    So did I anger feign, though it must falsehood seem?
    Like those who leap into a stream which they know will carry them off, why should a wife feign
    dislike which she knows cannot hold out long?

    1288
    Though shameful ill it works, dear is the palm-tree wine
    To drunkards; traitor, so to me that breast of thine!
    O you rogue! your breast is to me what liquor is to those who rejoice in it, though it only
    gives them an unpleasant disgrace.

    1289
    Love is tender as an opening flower. In season due
    To gain its perfect bliss is rapture known to few.
    Sexual delight is more delicate than a flower, and few are those who understand its real nature.

    1290
    Her eye, as I drew nigh one day, with anger shone:
    By love oerpowered, her tenderness surpassed my own.
    She once feigned dislike in her eyes, but the warmth of her embrace exceeded my own.

    3.2.15. Expostulation with Oneself

    1291
    You see his heart is his alone
    O heart, why not be all my own?
    O my soul! although you have seen how his soul stands by him, how is it you do not stand by me?

    1292
    Tis plain, my heart, that he s estranged from thee;
    Why go to him as though he were not enemy?
    O my soul! although you have known him who does not love me, still do you go to him, saying
    he will not be displeased.

    1293
    The ruined have no friends, they say; and so, my heart,
    To follow him, at thy desire, from me thou dost depart.
    O my soul! do you follow him at pleasure under the belief that the ruined have no friends?

    1294
    See, thou first show offended pride, and then submit, I bade;
    Henceforth such council who will share with thee my heart?
    O my soul! you would not first seem sulky and then enjoy (him); who then would in future
    consult you about such things?

    1295
    I fear I shall not gain, I fear to lose him when I gain;
    And thus my heart endures unceasing pain.
    My soul fears when it is without him; it also fears when it is with him; it is sub ject to incessant sorrow.

    1296
    My heart consumes me when I ponder lone,
    And all my lovers cruelty bemoan.
    My mind has been (here) in order to eat me up (as it were) whenever I think of him in my solitude.

    1297
    Falln neath the sway of this ignoble foolish heart,
    Which will not him forget, I have forgotten shame.
    I have even forgotten my modesty, having been caught in my foolish mind which is not
    dignified enough to forget him.

    1298
    If I contemn him, then disgrace awaits me evermore;
    My soul that seeks to live his virtues numbers oer.
    My soul which clings to life thinks only of his (own) gain in the belief that it would be
    disgraceful for it to despise him.

    1299
    And who will aid me in my hour of grief,
    If my own heart comes not to my relief?
    Who would help me out of ones distress, when ones own soul refuses help to one?

    1300
    A trifle is unfriendliness by aliens shown,
    When our own heart itself is not our own!
    It is hardly possible for strangers to behave like relations, when ones own soul acts like a stranger.

    3.2.16. Pouting

    1301
    Be still reserved, decline his profferred love;
    A little while his sore distress we ll prove.
    Let us witness awhile his keen suffering; just feign dislike and embrace him not.

    1302
    A cool reserve is like the salt that seasons well the mess,
    Too long maintained, tis like the salts excess.
    A little dislike is like salt in proportion; to prolong it a little is like salt a little too much.

    1303
    Tis heaping griefs on those whose hearts are grieved;
    To leave the grieving one without a fond embrace.
    For men not to embrace those who have feigned dislike is like torturing those already in agony.

    1304
    To use no kind conciliating art when lover grieves,
    Is cutting out the root of tender winding plant that droops.
    Not to reconcile those who have feigned dislike is like cutting a faded creeper at its root.

    1305
    Even to men of good and worthy mind, the petulance
    Of wives with flowery eyes lacks not a lovely grace.
    An increased shyness in those whose eyes are like flowers is beautiful even to good and virtuous husbands.

    1306
    Love without hatred is ripened fruit;
    Without some lesser strife, fruit immature.
    Sexual pleasure, without prolonged and short-lived dislike, is like too ripe, and unripe fruit.

    1307
    A lovers quarrel brings its pain, when mind afraid
    Asks doubtful, Will reunion sweet be long delayed?
    The doubt as to whether intercourse would take place soon or not, creates a sorrow (even) in feigned dislike.

    1308
    What good can grieving do, when none who love
    Are there to know the grief thy soul endures?
    What avails sorrow when I am without a wife who can understand the cause of my sorrow?

    1309
    Water is pleasant in the cooling shade;
    So coolness for a time with those we love.
    Like water in the shade, dislike is delicious only in those who love.

    1310
    Of her who leaves me thus in variance languishing,
    To think within my heart with love is fond desire.
    It is nothing but strong desire that makes her mind unite with me who can leave her to her own dislike.

    3.2.17. Feigned Anger

    1311
    From thy regard all womankind Enjoys an equal grace;
    O thou of wandering fickle mind, I shrink from thine embrace!
    You are given to prostitution; all those who are born as womankind enjoy you with their
    eyes in an ordinary way. I will not embrace you.

    1312
    One day we silent sulked; he sneezed: The reason well I knew;
    He thought that I, to speak well pleased, Would say, Long life to you!
    When I continued to be sulky he sneezed and thought I would (then) wish him a long life.

    1313
    I wreathed with flowers one day my brow, The angry tempest lowers;
    She cries, Pray, for what woman now Do you put on your flowers?
    Even if I were adorned with a garland of branch-flowers, she would say I did so to show it to another woman.

    1314
    I love you more than all beside, T was thus I gently spoke;
    What all, what all? she instant cried; And all her anger woke.
    When I said I loved her more than any other woman, she said more than others, yes,
    more than others, and remained sulky.

    1315
    While here I live, I leave you not, I said to calm her fears.
    She cried, There, then, I read your thought; And straight dissolved in tears.
    When I said I would never part from her in this life her eyes were filled with tears.

    1316
    Each day I called to mind your charms, O, then, you had forgot,
    She cried, and then her opened arms, Forthwith embraced me not.
    When I said I had remembered her, she said I had forgotten her and relaxing her embrace, began to feign dislike.

    1317
    She hailed me when I sneezed one day; But straight with anger seized,
    She cried; Who was the woman, pray, Thinking of whom you sneezed?
    When I sneezed she blessed me, but at once changed (her mind) and wept, asking,
    At the thought of whom did you sneeze?

    1318
    And so next time I checked my sneeze; She forthwith wept and cried,
    (That woman difficult to please), Your thoughts from me you hide.
    When I suppressed my sneezing, she wept saying, I suppose you (did so) to hide
    from me your own peoples remembrance of you.

    1319
    I then began to soothe and coax, To calm her jealous mind;
    I see, quoth she, to other folks How you are wondrous kind
    Even when I try to remove her dislike, she is displeased and says, This is the way
    you behave towards (other women).

    1320
    I silent sat, but thought the more, And gazed on her. Then she
    Cried out, While thus you eye me oer, Tell me whose form you see.
    Even when I look on her contemplating (her beauty), she is displeased and says,
    With whose thought have you (thus) looked on my person?

    3.2.18. The Pleasures of Temporary Variance

    1321
    Although there be no fault in him, the sweetness of his love
    Hath power in me a fretful jealousy to move.
    Although my husband is free from defects, the way in which he embraces me is such
    as to make me feign dislike.

    1322
    My anger feigned gives but a little pain;
    And when affection droops, it makes it bloom again.
    His love will increase though it may (at first seem to) fade through the short-lived
    distress caused by (my) dislike.

    1323
    Is there a bliss in any world more utterly divine,
    Than coyness gives, when hearts as earth and water join?
    Is there a celestial land that can please like the feigned dislike of those whose
    union resembles that of earth and water?

    1324
    Within the anger feigned that close loves tie doth bind,
    A weapon lurks, which quite breaks down my mind.
    In prolonged dislike after an embrace there is a weapon that can break my heart.

    1325
    Though free from fault, from loved ones tender arms
    To be estranged a while hath its own special charms.
    Though free from defects, men feel pleased when they cannot embrace the delicate
    shoulders of those whom they love.

    1326
    Tis sweeter to digest your food than tis to eat;
    In love, than unions self is anger feigned more sweet.
    To digest what has been eaten is more delightful than to eat more; likewise love is
    more delightful in dislike than intercourse.

    1327
    In lovers quarrels, tis the one that first gives way,
    That in re-unions joy is s een to win the day.
    Those are conquerors whose dislike has been defeated and that is proved by the love (which follows).

    1328
    And shall we ever more the sweetness know of that embrace
    With dewy brow; to which feigned anger lent its piquant grace.
    Will I enjoy once more through her dislike, the pleasure of that love that makes her forehead perspire?

    1329
    Let her, whose jewels brightly shine, aversion feign!
    That I may still plead on, O night, prolong thy reign!
    May the bright-jewelled one feign dislike, and may the night be prolonged for me to implore her!

    1330
    A feigned aversion coy to pleasure gives a zest;
    The pleasures crowned when breast is clasped to breast.
    Dislike adds delight to love; and a hearty embrace (thereafter) will add delight to dislike